Recent HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bangkok and Chiang Mai: HIV Testing and Prevention Strategies Must Be Enhanced in Thailand
- 428 Downloads
HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15–24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.
KeywordsThailand HIV testing Men who have sex with men Respondent-driven sampling Sexual risk Adolescent Youth
The authors would like to thank the study participants and data collectors.
This article was funded by UNICEF Thailand, UNFPA Thailand, UNESCO Thailand.
- 5.Chariyalertsak S, Kosachunhanan N, Saokhieo P, Songsupa R, Wongthanee A, Chariyalertsak C, et al. HIV incidence, risk factors, and motivation for biomedical intervention among gay, bisexual men, and transgender persons in Northern Thailand. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(9):e24295.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 8.Edwards-Jackson N, Phanuphak N, Van Tieu H, Chomchey N, Teeratakulpisarn N, Sathienthammawit W, et al. HIV serostatus disclosure is not associated with safer sexual behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and their partners at risk for infection in Bangkok, Thailand. AIDS Res Ther. 2012;9(1):38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 11.World Health Organization. Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations, Geneva, Switzerland. 2014. Accessed 1 June 2015 at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128048/1/9789241507431_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1.
- 13.Helms DJ, Weinstock HS, Mahle KC, Bernstein KT, Furness BW, Kent CK, et al. HIV testing frequency among men who have sex with men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics: implications for HIV prevention and surveillance. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(3):320–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Fonner VA, Denison J, Kennedy CE, O’Reilly K, Sweat M. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for changing HIV-related risk behavior in developing countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD001224.Google Scholar
- 20.The Voluntary HIV-1 Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group. Efficacy of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in individuals and couples in Kenya, Tanzania, and Trinidad: a randomised trial. The Voluntary HIV-1 Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9224):103–12.Google Scholar
- 21.UNAIDS. Services for gay men and other men who have sex with men. Geneva, Switzerland. 2014. Accessed 15 June 2015 at: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/2014unaidsguidancenote_servicesforMSM_en.pdf.
- 23.Delany-Moretlwe S, Cowan FM, Busza J, Bolton-Moore C, Kelley K, Fairlie L. Providing comprehensive health services for young key populations: needs, barriers and gaps. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18(2(Suppl 1)):19833.Google Scholar
- 25.Ministry of Health Thailand. Integrated biological and behavioral surveillance survey. Bangkok, Thailand. 2012.Google Scholar
- 26.National AIDS Committee. Thailand AIDS response progress report. 2015. Bangkok, Thailand. Accessed 1 November 2015 at: http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/country/documents/THA_narrative_report_2015.pdf.
- 28.Johnston LG. Introduction to respondent-driven sampling. 2013. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Accessed 5 November 2015 at: http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2013_EN_1539.pdf.
- 34.Phanuphak N, Pattanachaiwit S, Pankam T, Pima W, Avihingsanon A, Teeratakulpisarn N, et al. Active voluntary counseling and testing with integrated CD4 count service can enhance early HIV testing and early CD4 count measurement: experiences from the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56(3):244–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The fifth Bangkok HIV/AIDS prevention and control strategy (2012–2016). Thailand: Bangkok; 2011.Google Scholar
- 36.Zhang L, Phanuphak N, Henderson K, Nonenoy S, Srikaew S, Shattock AJ, et al. Scaling up of HIV treatment for men who have sex with men in Bangkok: a modelling and costing study. Lancet HIV. 2015;2(5):e200–7.Google Scholar
- 37.Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre. MSM friendly HIV testing sites in Bangkok. Accessed 15 June 2015 at: http://adamslove.org/en-d.php?id=354.
- 44.Thailand Ministry of Public Health. National guidelines for the implementation of HIV prevention in MSM and transgender populations. Bangkok, Thailand. 2013.Google Scholar
- 45.Fox K, Ferguson J, Ajose W, Singh J, Marum E, Baggaley R. Adolescent consent to testing: a review of current policies and issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Geneva, Switzerland. 2013. Accessed 25 April 2015 at: http://www.youngpeopleandhiv.org/files/HIV_Testing_guideline.pdf.
- 47.Choko AT, Desmond N, Webb EL, Chavula K, Napierala-Mavedzenge S, Gaydos CA, et al. The uptake and accuracy of oral kits for HIV self-testing in high HIV prevalence setting: a cross-sectional feasibility study in Blantyre, Malawi. PLoS Med. 2011;8(10):e1001102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 48.Mansergh G, Shouse RL, Marks G, Guzman R, Rader M, Buchbinder S, et al. Methamphetamine and sildenafil (Viagra) use are linked to unprotected receptive and insertive anal sex, respectively, in a sample of men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82(2):131–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar