AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 36–40 | Cite as

Unmet HIV Service Needs Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States

  • David R. HoltgraveEmail author
  • J. Janet Kim
  • Chris Adkins
  • Cathy Maulsby
  • Kali D. Lindsey
  • Kim M. Johnson
  • Daniel C. Montoya
  • Robin T. Kelley
Brief Report


The National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) clearly emphasized the need to provide services to black men who have sex with men (MSM). However, there are no estimates of the unmet HIV-related service delivery needs among black MSM. We estimate that of 195,313 black MSM living with HIV in the US, 50,196 were not yet diagnosed, and 145,118 were aware of their seropositivity (of whom 67,625 were not linked to care and 77,493 were linked to care). Also, of those already diagnosed, ~43,390 had undetectable viral load and 101,728 had detectable viral load. Approximately 19,545 of diagnosed black MSM engage in unprotected risk behavior in serostatus-discordant partnerships. The cost of delivering services needed to meet the NHAS goals is ~$2.475 billion in 2011 U.S. dollars. Mathematical modeling suggests that provisions of these services would avert 6213 HIV infections at an economically favorable cost of $20,032 per quality-adjusted life year saved.


HIV Policy analysis Economic evaluation Mathematical modeling Gay men MSM 



This manuscript was prepared as part of a contract from the National Minority AIDS Council to The Johns Hopkins University. We thank Dr. H Irene Hall for helpful input into this analysis.

Conflicts of interest

There are no other conflicts to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Holtgrave
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. Janet Kim
    • 1
  • Chris Adkins
    • 1
  • Cathy Maulsby
    • 1
  • Kali D. Lindsey
    • 2
  • Kim M. Johnson
    • 3
  • Daniel C. Montoya
    • 2
  • Robin T. Kelley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health, Behavior and SocietyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.National Minority AIDS CouncilWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Community Advancement and Leadership StrategiesNational Minority AIDS CouncilWashingtonUSA

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