Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, Prejean J, An Q, Lee LM, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA. 2008;300(5):520–9.
Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS—United States, 1981–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(21):589–92.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS among women. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/. Accessed 1 August 2011.
UNAIDS. Report on the global AIDS epidemic; 2010. http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_full_en.pdf. Accessed 20 November 2011.
Mugavero MJ, Castellano C, Edelman D, Hicks C. Late diagnosis of HIV infection: the role of age and sex. Am J Med. 2007;120(4):370–3.
Mugavero MJ, Lin HY, Allison JJ, Willig JH, Chang PW, Marler M, et al. Failure to establish HIV care: characterizing the “no show” phenomenon. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45(1):127–30.
Shapiro MF, Morton SC, McCaffrey DF, Senterfitt JW, Fleishman JA, Perlman JF, et al. Variations in the care of HIV-infected adults in the United States: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. JAMA. 1999;281(24):2305–15.
Wingood GM, Diclemente RJ, Mikhail I, McCree DH, Davies SL, Hardin JW, et al. HIV discrimination and the health of women living with HIV. Women Health. 2007;46(2–3):99–112.
Whetten K, Reif S, Lowe K, Eldred L. Gender differences in knowledge and perceptions of HIV resources among individuals living with HIV in the Southeast. South Med J. 2004;97(4):342–9.
Tobias C, Cunningham WE, Cunningham CO, Pounds MB. Making the connection: the importance of engagement and retention in HIV medical care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(Suppl 1):S3–8.
Vyavaharkar MV, Moneyham L, Corwin S. Health care utilization: the experiences of rural HIV-positive African American women. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008;19(1):294–306.
Cunningham WE, Markson LE, Andersen RM, Crystal SH, Fleishman JA, Golin C, et al. Prevalence and predictors of highly active antiretroviral therapy use in patients with HIV infection in the United States. HCSUS Consortium. HIV Cost and Services Utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25(2):115–23.
Hirschhorn LR, McInnes K, Landon BE, Wilson IB, Ding L, Marsden PV, et al. Gender differences in quality of HIV care in Ryan White CARE Act-funded clinics. Womens Health Issues. 2006;16(3):104–12.
Mostashari F, Riley E, Selwyn PA, Altice FL. Acceptance and adherence with antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected women in a correctional facility. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18(4):341–8.
Smith DK, Gardner LI, Phelps R, Hamburger ME, Carpenter C, Klein RS, et al. Mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women, 1993–1999. J Urban Health. 2003;80(4):676–88.
Hessol NA, Kalinowski A, Benning L, Mullen J, Young M, Palella F, et al. Mortality among participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(2):287–94.
UNAIDS. Operational plan for UNAIDS Action Framework: addressing women, girls, gender equality and HIV; 2010. http://www.unfpa.org/hiv/docs/unaids_operationalplan.pdf. Accessed 14 November 2011.
Committee on Preventive Services for Women; Institute of Medicine. Clinical Preventive Services for Women: closing the gaps. The National Academies Press. http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2011/Clinical-Preventive-Services-for-Women-Closing-the-Gaps.aspx. Accessed 20 November 2011.
Machtinger EL, Wilson TC, Haberer JE, Weiss DS. Psychological trauma and PTSD in HIV-positive women: a meta-analysis. AIDS Behav. 2012. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:22249954.
Maman S, Campbell J, Sweat MD, Gielen AC. The intersections of HIV and violence: directions for future research and interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2000;50(4):459–78.
Cohen M, Deamant C, Barkan S, Richardson J, Young M, Holman S, et al. Domestic violence and childhood sexual abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. Am J Public Health. 2000;90(4):560–5.
El-Bassel N, Witte SS, Wada T, Gilbert L, Wallace J. Correlates of partner violence among female street-based sex workers: substance abuse, history of childhood abuse, and HIV risks. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2001;15(1):41–51.
Arriola KR, Louden T, Doldren MA, Fortenberry RM. A meta-analysis of the relationship of child sexual abuse to HIV risk behavior among women. Child Abuse Negl. 2005;29(6):725–46.
Plotzker RE, Metzger DS, Holmes WC. Childhood sexual and physical abuse histories, PTSD, depression, and HIV risk outcomes in women injection drug users: a potential mediating pathway. Am J Addict. 2007;16(6):431–8.
Senn TE, Carey MP, Vanable PA, Coury-Doniger P, Urban MA. Childhood sexual abuse and sexual risk behavior among men and women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2006;74(4):720–31.
Mugavero MJ, Pence BW, Whetten K, Leserman J, Swartz M, Stangl D, et al. Predictors of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in a southern U.S. Cohort. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(9):681–90.
Mugavero MJ, Raper JL, Reif S, Whetten K, Leserman J, Thielman NM, et al. Overload: impact of incident stressful events on antiretroviral medication adherence and virologic failure in a longitudinal, multisite human immunodeficiency virus cohort study. Psychosom Med. 2009;71(9):920–6.
McDonnell KA, Gielen AC, O’Campo P, Burke JG. Abuse, HIV status and health-related quality of life among a sample of HIV positive and HIV negative low income women. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(4):945–57.
Ironson G, O’Cleirigh C, Fletcher MA, Laurenceau JP, Balbin E, Klimas N, et al. Psychosocial factors predict CD4 and viral load change in men and women with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Psychosom Med. 2005;67(6):1013–21.
Leserman J, Pence BW, Whetten K, Mugavero MJ, Thielman NM, Swartz MS, et al. Relation of lifetime trauma and depressive symptoms to mortality in HIV. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(11):1707–13.
Boarts JM, Buckley-Fischer BA, Armelie AP, Bogart LM, Delahanty DL. The impact of HIV diagnosis-related vs. non-diagnosis related trauma on PTSD, depression, medication adherence, and HIV disease markers. J Evid Based Soc Work. 2009;6(1):4–16.
Bedimo AL, Kissinger P, Bessinger R. History of sexual abuse among HIV-infected women. Int J STD AIDS. 1997;8(5):332–5.
Chuang CH, Liebschutz JM, Horton NJ, Samet JH. Association of violence victimization with inconsistent condom use in HIV-infected persons. AIDS Behav. 2006;10(2):201–7.
Hogben M. The effect of sexual and physical violence on risky sexual behavior and STDs among a cohort of HIV seropositive women. AIDS Behav. 2001;5(4):353–61.
Lang DL, Salazar LF, Wingood GM, DiClemente RJ, Mikhail I. Associations between recent gender-based violence and pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, condom use practices, and negotiation of sexual practices among HIV-positive women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46(2):216–21.
Lewis CF. Post-traumatic stress disorder in HIV-positive incarcerated women. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2005;33(4):455–64.
Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Meade CS, Kochman A, Fox AM. Psychosocial predictors of sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with a sexual abuse history in childhood. Arch Sex Behav. 2009;38(1):121–34.
Lopez EJ, Jones DL, Villar-Loubet OM, Arheart KL, Weiss SM. Violence, coping, and consistent medication adherence in HIV-positive couples. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010;22(1):61–8.
Delahanty DL, Bogart LM, Figler JL. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, salivary cortisol, medication adherence, and CD4 levels in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS Care. 2004;16(2):247–60.
Keuroghlian AS, Kamen CS, Neri E, Lee S, Liu R, Gore-Felton C. Trauma, dissociation, and antiretroviral adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(7):942–8.
Boarts JM, Sledjeski EM, Bogart LM, Delahanty DL. The differential impact of PTSD and depression on HIV disease markers and adherence to HAART in people living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2006;10(3):253–61.
Cohen MA, Alfonso CA, Hoffman RG, Milau V, Carrera G. The impact of PTSD on treatment adherence in persons with HIV infection. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2001;23(5):294–6.
Safren SA, Gershuny BS, Hendriksen E. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress and death anxiety in persons with HIV and medication adherence difficulties. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003;17(12):657–64.
Whetten K, Reif S, Whetten R, Murphy-McMillan LK. Trauma, mental health, distrust, and stigma among HIV-positive persons: implications for effective care. Psychosom Med. 2008;70(5):531–8.
Meade CS, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Sikkema KJ. Utilization of medical treatments and adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with histories of childhood sexual abuse. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23(4):259–66.
Brief DJ, Bollinger AR, Vielhauer MJ, Berger-Greenstein JA, Morgan EE, Brady SM, et al. Understanding the interface of HIV, trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use and its implications for health outcomes. AIDS Care. 2004;16(Suppl 1):S97–120.
Vranceanu AM, Safren SA, Lu M, Coady WM, Skolnik PR, Rogers WH, et al. The relationship of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression to antiretroviral medication adherence in persons with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2008;22(4):313–21.
Sledjeski EM, Delahanty DL, Bogart LM. Incidence and impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression on adherence to HAART and CD4+ counts in people living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19(11):728–36.
Rogers ES, Chamberlin J, Ellison ML, Crean T. A consumer-constructed scale to measure empowerment among users of mental health services. Psychiatr Serv. 1997;48(8):1042–7.
California Health Interview Survey. Survey design and methods. Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. http://www.chis.ucla.edu/methods.html. Accessed 20 November 2011.
Amico KR, Fisher WA, Cornman DH, Shuper PA, Redding CG, Konkle-Parker DJ, et al. Visual analog scale of ART adherence: association with 3-day self-report and adherence barriers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;42(4):455–9.
Rosenblum M, Deeks SG, van der Laan M, Bangsberg DR. The risk of virologic failure decreases with duration of HIV suppression, at greater than 50% adherence to antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2009;4(9):e7196.
Maggiolo F, Airoldi M, Kleinloog HD, Callegaro A, Ravasio V, Arici C, et al. Effect of adherence to HAART on virologic outcome and on the selection of resistance-conferring mutations in NNRTI- or PI-treated patients. HIV Clin Trials. 2007;8(5):282–92.
Jansen HAFM, Watts C, Ellsberg M, Heise L. Garcia Moreno C. Interviewer training in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Violence Against Women. 2004;10:831–49.
World Health Organization. Putting women first: ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence against women (WHO/FCH/GWH/01.1). Geneva: Author; 2001. http://www.who.int/gender/violence/womenfirtseng.pdf. Accessed 20 November 2011.
Leserman J, Petitto JM, Golden RN, Gaynes BN, Gu H, Perkins DO, et al. Impact of stressful life events, depression, social support, coping, and cortisol on progression to AIDS. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(8):1221–8.
Ressler KJ, Mercer KB, Bradley B, Jovanovic T, Mahan A, Kerley K, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with PACAP and the PAC1 receptor. Nature. 2011;470(7335):492–7.
Cohen MH, Cook JA, Grey D, Young M, Hanau LH, Tien P, et al. Medically eligible women who do not use HAART: the importance of abuse, drug use, and race. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(7):1147–51.
McNutt LA, van Ryn M, Clark C, Fraiser I. Partner violence and medical encounters: African-American women’s perspectives. Am J Prev Med. 2000;19(4):264–9.
Vyavaharkar M, Moneyham L, Tavakoli A, Phillips KD, Murdaugh C, Jackson K, et al. Social support, coping, and medication adherence among HIV-positive women with depression living in rural areas of the southeastern United States. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(9):667–80.
Murphy DA, Greenwell L, Hoffman D. Factors associated with antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected women with children. Women Health. 2002;36(1):97–111.
Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1986.
Theory at a glance: a guide for health promotion practice. 2nd ed. U.S. Department of Health and Social Services, National Institutes of Health; 2005. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cancerlibrary/theory.pdf.
Bartholomew LK, Mullen PD. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions. J Public Health Dent. 2011;71(Suppl 1):S20–33.
Farley M, Barkan H. Prostitution, violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Women Health. 1998;27(3):37–49.
Hutton HE, Treisman GJ, Hunt WR, Fishman M, Kendig N, Swetz A, et al. HIV risk behaviors and their relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder among women prisoners. Psychiatr Serv. 2001;52(4):508–13.
Wagner GJ, Rabkin JG. Measuring medication adherence: are missed doses reported more accurately then perfect adherence? AIDS Care. 2000;12(4):405–8.
Sikkema KJ, Wilson PA, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Neufeld S, Ghebremichael MS, et al. Effects of a coping intervention on transmission risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47(4):506–13.
Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Tarakeshwar N, Neufeld S, Meade CS, et al. Outcomes from a group intervention for coping with HIV/AIDS and childhood sexual abuse: reductions in traumatic stress. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(1):49–60.
Hien DA, Campbell AN, Killeen T, Hu MC, Hansen C, Jiang H, et al. The impact of trauma-focused group therapy upon HIV sexual risk behaviors in the NIDA clinical trials network “women and trauma” multi-site study. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(2):421–30.