Skip to main content

Still Crazy After All These Years: The Challenge of AIDS Denialism for Science

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Kalichman S. Denying AIDS: conspiracy theories, pseudoscience and human tragedy. New York: Springer; 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Nattrass N. Mortal combat: AIDS denialism and the struggle for antiretrovirals in South Africa. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press; 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Epstein S. Impure science: AIDS, activism and the politics of knowledge. Berkeley: California University Press; 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Blattner W, Gallo R, Temin H. HIV causes AIDS. Science. 1988;241:515–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Gallo R. Virus hunting: AIDS, cancer and the human retrovirus. A story of scientific discovery. New York: Basic Books; 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Cohen J. The Duesberg phenomenon. Science. 1994;266:1642–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Galea P, Chermann J. HIV as the cause of aids and associated diseases. Genetica. 1998;104:133–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Gallo R, Geffen N, Gonsalves G, Jeffries R, Kuritzkes D, Mirken B, Moore J, Safrit J. Errors in Celia Farber’s March 2006 article in Harpers Magazine. 2006.

  9. Moore J. A Duesberg Adieu!. Nature. 1996;380:293–4.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Hughes S. Interview with Warren Winkelstein, 26 Oct 1994. Available on:

  11. Goldacre B. Bad Science. London: Fourth Estate; 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Farber C. Out of control: AIDS and the corruption of medical science. Harpers Mag. March, 2006; 37–52.

  13. Gieryn T. Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. Am Sociol Rev. 1983;48:781–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Chigidere P, Seage G, Gruskin S, Lee T, Essex M. Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49:410–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Nattrass N. AIDS and the scientific governance of medicine in post-apartheid South Africa. Afr Aff. 2008;107(427):157–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicoli Nattrass.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Nattrass, N. Still Crazy After All These Years: The Challenge of AIDS Denialism for Science. AIDS Behav 14, 248–251 (2010).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: