AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 607–617 | Cite as

Pilot Study Assessing HIV Vaccine Trial Readiness Among Female Sex Workers, Injection and Non-injection Drug Users, and Men Who Have Sex with Men in Spain

  • María Florencia Etcheverry
  • Elisa de Lazzari
  • Jonathan D. Fuchs
  • Mercé Meroño
  • Ernesto Sierra
  • Jorge Del Romero
  • Jennifer L. Evans
  • Eva Mendez-Arancibia
  • Constanza Jacques
  • Daniela Rojas
  • Marta Segú
  • José María Gatell
  • Joan JosephEmail author
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to assess HIV risk and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials in three high risk populations in Spain. Eight hundred and forty-four participants, comprising female sex workers, injection and non-injection drug users (IDUs and NIDUs, respectively), and men who have sex with men were tested for HIV and surveyed for risk and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. HIV seroprevalence was 3.8% (95% CI: 2–11). HIV infection was associated with transgender identification, IDU in the past year, and sex with an IDU or other drug-using partner. The majority (82%) expressed their willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Substantial sexual and parenteral risk in all groups and concomitant willingness to participate in vaccine trials was found, particularly among women and IDUs. Additional longitudinal cohort studies in Spain are needed to plan future vaccine efficacy trials.


HIV Female sex workers Men who have sex with men Injection drug users Vaccine preparedness studies 



This work was supported by the Catalan HIV Vaccine Program (HIVACAT), RIS (Red Española de Investigación en SIDA) proyecto RD 06/000, Fundació “La Caixa”, Fundación Caja Madrid y Fundació Barcelona SIDA 2002. The authors greatly appreciate the assistance of Dr. Susan Buchbinder and Dr. Willi McFarland from the San Francisco Department of Public Health and University of California, San Francisco; their collective input greatly strengthened this paper. The authors also thank Dr. Jorge Flores from the Division of AIDS at the US National Institutes of Health and Dr. Kimberly Page-Shafer, from the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the University of California, San Francisco for reviewing the manuscript, critical discussion and continuous support since the beginning of this project. We also want to thank the entire research team for their continuous collaboration and support and all individuals who participated actively in the research studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Florencia Etcheverry
    • 1
  • Elisa de Lazzari
    • 1
  • Jonathan D. Fuchs
    • 2
  • Mercé Meroño
    • 3
  • Ernesto Sierra
    • 4
  • Jorge Del Romero
    • 5
  • Jennifer L. Evans
    • 6
  • Eva Mendez-Arancibia
    • 1
  • Constanza Jacques
    • 3
  • Daniela Rojas
    • 5
  • Marta Segú
    • 7
  • José María Gatell
    • 1
  • Joan Joseph
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.AIDS Research Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clínic/IDIBAPS, School of MedicineUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.San Francisco Department of Public HealthAIDS OfficeSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.NGO Ambit-PrevencióCiutat Vella District, BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Red Cross CentreCiutat Vella District, BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Sandoval Health CentreMadridSpain
  6. 6.Center for AIDS Prevention StudiesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  7. 7.Fundació Barcelona SIDA 2002BarcelonaSpain

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