AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1222–1232 | Cite as

The Effects of HIV Stigma on Health, Disclosure of HIV Status, and Risk Behavior of Homeless and Unstably Housed Persons Living with HIV

  • Richard J. Wolitski
  • Sherri L. Pals
  • Daniel P. Kidder
  • Cari Courtenay-Quirk
  • David R. Holtgrave
Original Paper


HIV-related stigma negatively affects the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA experience myriad challenges and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV-related stigma. Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA from 3 U.S. cities (N = 637) completed computer-assisted interviews that measured demographics, self-assessed physical and mental health, medical utilization, adherence, HIV disclosure, and risk behaviors. Internal and perceived external HIV stigma were assessed and combined for a total stigma score. Higher levels of stigma were experienced by women, homeless participants, those with a high school education or less, and those more recently diagnosed with HIV. Stigma was strongly associated with poorer self-assessed physical and mental health, and perceived external stigma was associated with recent non-adherence to HIV treatment. Perceived external stigma was associated with decreased HIV disclosure to social network members, and internal stigma was associated with drug use and non-disclosure to sex partners. Interventions are needed to reduce HIV-related stigma and its effects on the health of homeless/unstably housed PLWHA.


HIV stigma Discrimination Prejudice Homelessness Access to medical care Adherence Sexual risk behavior HIV disclosure Social support 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Wolitski
    • 1
  • Sherri L. Pals
    • 1
  • Daniel P. Kidder
    • 1
  • Cari Courtenay-Quirk
    • 1
  • David R. Holtgrave
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of HIV/AIDS PreventionNational Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of HealthBehavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

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