Coexistence between livestock grazing and carnivores in rangelands is a major challenge in terms of sustainable agriculture, animal welfare, species conservation and ecosystem function. Many effective non-lethal tools exist to protect livestock from predation, yet their adoption remains limited. Using a social-ecological transformations framework, we present two qualitative models that depict transformative change in rangelands grazing. Developed through participatory processes with stakeholders from South Africa and the United States of America, the models articulate drivers of change and the essential pathways to transition from routine lethal management of carnivores towards mutually beneficial coexistence. The pathways define broad actions that incorporate multiple values in grazing systems including changes to livestock management practices, financial support, industry capacity building, research, improved governance and marketing initiatives. A key finding is the new concept of ‘Predator Smart Farming’, a holistic and conscientious approach to agriculture, which increases the resilience of landscapes, animals (domesticated and wild) and rural livelihoods. Implementation of these multiple pathways would lead to a future system that ensures thriving agricultural communities, secure livelihoods, reduced violence toward animals, and landscapes that are productive and support species conservation and coexistence.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The interview questions are available to review upon request and/or can be provided as supplementary material.
MAXQDA software (VERBI GmbH version 18.2.0).
Abson, D.J., J. Fischer, J. Leventon, J. Newig, T. Schomerus, U. Vilsmaier, H. von Wehrden, P. Abernethy, et al. 2017. Leverage points for sustainability transformation. AMBIO. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0800-y.
Amel, E., C. Manning, B. Scott, and S. Koger. 2017. Beyond the roots of human inaction: Fostering collective effort toward ecosystem conservation. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1931.
Baker, P.J., L. Boitani, S. Harris, G. Saunders, and P.C.L. White. 2008. Terrestrial carnivores and human food production: Impact and management. Mammal Review 38: 123–166. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2008.00122.x.
Berger, K.M. 2006. Carnivore-livestock conflicts: Effects of subsidized predator control and economic correlates on the sheep industry. Conservation Biology 20: 751–761. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00336.x.
Bergstrom, B.J. 2017. Carnivore conservation: Shifting the paradigm from control to coexistence. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw185.
Bergstrom, B.J., L.C. Arias, A.D. Davidson, A.W. Ferguson, L.A. Randa, and S.R. Sheffield. 2014. License to kill: Reforming federal wildlife control to restore biodiversity and ecosystem function. Conservation Letters 7: 131–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12045.
Beschta, R.L., and W.J. Ripple. 2009. Large predators and trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems of the western United States. Biological Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.06.015.
Bogezi, C., L.M. van Eeden, L. Wirsing, and J. Marzluff. 2019. Predator-friendly beef certification as an economic strategy to promote coexistence between ranchers and wolves. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00476.
Boronyak, L., B. Jacobs, and A. Wallach. 2020. Transitioning towards human–Large carnivore coexistence in extensive grazing systems. AMBIO. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01340-w.
Bøving, P.S., and E. Post. 1997. Vigilance and foraging behaviour of female caribou in relation to predation risk. Rangifer 17: 55. https://doi.org/10.7557/188.8.131.522.
Brink, C.W., R.L. Thomson, A. Amar, M. Girardello, and A. Santangeli. 2021. Prevalence and drivers of poison use by South African commercial farmers and perceptions of alternative livestock protection measures. Ambio. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01461-2.
Brown, P. D. 2011. Wolves and Livestock: A review of tools to deter livestock predation and a case study of a proactive wolf conflict mitigation program developed in the Blackfoot Valley, Montana. Montana The Magazine Of Western History. https://scholarworks.umt.edu/etd/1193
Bruskotter, J.T., and D.C. Fulton. 2012. Will hunters steward wolves? A comment on Treves and Martin. Society and Natural Resources 25: 97–102. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2011.622735.
Bryant, A., and K. Charmaz. 2010. The evolving nature of grounded theory method: The case of the information systems discipline. The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607941.n16.
Cardinale, B.J., J.E. Duffy, A. Gonzalez, D.U. Hooper, C. Perrings, P. Venail, A. Narwani, G.M. MacE, et al. 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486: 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11148.
Chan, K.M.A., D.R. Boyd, R.K. Gould, J. Jetzkowitz, J. Liu, B. Muraca, R. Naidoo, P. Olmsted, et al. 2020. Levers and leverage points for pathways to sustainability. People and Nature. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10124.
Chinseu, E.L., L.C. Stringer, and A.J. Dougill. 2019. An empirically derived conceptual framework to assess dis-adoption of conservation agriculture: Multiple drivers and institutional deficiencies. Journal of Sustainable Development. https://doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v12n5p48.
Cockburn, J., G. Cundill, S. Shackleton, and M. Rouget. 2018. Towards place-based research to support social-ecological stewardship. Sustainability (Switzerland). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051434.
Colloff, M.J., S. Lavorel, L.E. van Kerkhoff, C.A. Wyborn, I. Fazey, R. Gorddard, G.M. Mace, W.B. Foden, et al. 2017. Transforming conservation science and practice for a postnormal world. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12912.
Curry, A., and A. Hodgson. 2008. Seeing in multiple horizons: Connecting futures to strategy. Journal of Futures Studies. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253444667.
Dickman, A.J., E.A. Macdonald, and D.W. Macdonald. 2011. A review of financial instruments to pay for predator conservation and encourage human-carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1012972108.
Djenontin, I.N.S., and A.M. Meadow. 2018. The art of co-production of knowledge in environmental sciences and management: Lessons from international practice. Environmental Management 61: 885–903. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-018-1028-3.
Estes, J.A., J. Terborgh, J.S. Brashares, M.E. Power, J. Berger, W.J. Bond, S.R. Carpenter, T.E. Essington, et al. 2011. Trophic downgrading of planet earth. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1205106.
Ferrier, S., K.N. Ninan, P. Leadley, R. Alkemade, L.A. Acosta, H.R. Akçakaya, L. Brotons, W. Cheung, et al. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the methodological assessment of scenarios and models of biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. https://doi.org/10.1590/1676-0611201600010001.
Fischer, J., D.B. Lindenmayer, and A.D. Manning. 2006. Biodiversity, ecosystem function, and resilience: Ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4: 80–86. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2006)004[0080:BEFART]2.0.CO;2.
Fischer, J., B. Brosi, G.C. Daily, P.R. Ehrlich, R. Goldman, J. Goldstein, D.B. Lindenmayer, A.D. Manning, et al. 2008. Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6: 380–385. https://doi.org/10.1890/070019.
Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg. 2005. Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 441–473. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144511.
Fryxell, J.M., A. Mosser, A.R.E. Sinclair, and C. Packer. 2007. Group formation stabilizes predator-prey dynamics. Nature 449: 1041–1043. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06177.
Geels, F.W., and J. Schot. 2007. Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways. Research Policy 36: 399–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2007.01.003.
Gibbons, L.V. 2020. Regenerative—The new sustainable? Sustainability 12: 5483. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135483.
Gigliotti, L.C., M.R. Matchett, and D.S. Jachowski. 2019. Mountain lions on the prairie: Habitat selection by recolonizing mountain lions at the edge of their range. Restoration Ecology 27: 1032–1040. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12952.
Glasser, B.G., and A.L. Strauss. 2009. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. American Journal of Sociology. https://doi.org/10.1086/224572.
Goldblatt, A. 2011. Agriculture: Facts and Trends South Africa. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
Gosnell, H., N. Gill, and M. Voyer. 2019. Transformational adaptation on the farm: Processes of change and persistence in transitions to ‘climate-smart’ regenerative agriculture. Global Environmental Change 59: 101965. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.101965.
Graham, K., A.P. Beckerman, and S. Thirgood. 2005. Human-predator-prey conflicts: Ecological correlates, prey losses and patterns of management. Biological Conservation 122: 159–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2004.06.006.
Green, R.E., S.J. Cornell, J.P.W. Scharlemann, and A. Balmford. 2005. Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science 307: 550–555. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106049.
Gunderson, L.H., and C.S. Holling. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Washington, DC: Island Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.01.010.
Havstad, K.M., D.P.C. Peters, R. Skaggs, J. Brown, B. Bestelmeyer, E. Fredrickson, J. Herrick, and J. Wright. 2007. Ecological services to and from rangelands of the United States. Ecological Economics 64: 261–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.08.005.
Head, B.W., and J. Alford. 2015. Wicked problems: Implications for public policy and management. Administration and Society 47: 711–739. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399713481601.
IDFG. 2018. Commission Community Challenge Grant Announcement 2018.
IDFG. 2020. Commission Community Challenge Grant Announcement 2020.
Ives, C.D., R. Freeth, and J. Fischer. 2020. Inside-out sustainability: The neglect of inner worlds. AMBIO 49: 208–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01187-w.
Jacobs, B., C. Lee, S. Watson, S. Dunford, and A. Coutts-Smith. 2016. Adaptation planning process and government adaptation architecture support regional action on climate Change in New South Wales, Australia. In Climate change management, ed. W. Leal Filho, 17–29. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25814-0_2.
Jacobs, B., D. Cordell, J. Chin, and H. Rowe. 2017. Towards phosphorus sustainability in North America: A model for transformational change. Environmental Science and Policy 77: 151–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2017.08.009.
Johnson, C.N., and A.D. Wallach. 2016. The virtuous circle: Predator-friendly farming and ecological restoration in Australia. Restoration Ecology 24: 821–826. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.12396.
Kansky, R., M. Kidd, and A.T. Knight. 2016. A wildlife tolerance model and case study for understanding human wildlife conflicts. Biological Conservation 201: 137–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.002.
Kendall, K.C., J.B. Stetz, J. Boulanger, A. MacLeod, and D. Paetkau. 2009. Demography and genetic structure of a recovering grizzly bear demography and genetic structure of a recovering grizzly bear population population. The Journal of Wildlife Management. https://doi.org/10.2193/2008-330.
Knapp, C.N., and M.E. Fernandez-Gimenez. 2009. Knowledge in practice: Documenting rancher local knowledge in Northwest Colorado. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62: 500–509. https://doi.org/10.2111/08-175.1.
Levin, K., B. Cashore, S. Bernstein, and G. Auld. 2012. Overcoming the tragedy of super wicked problems: Constraining our future selves to ameliorate global climate change. Policy Sciences 45: 123–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11077-012-9151-0.
Leys, A.J., and J.K. Vanclay. 2011. Social learning: A knowledge and capacity building approach for adaptive co-management of contested landscapes. Land Use Policy 28: 574–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2010.11.006.
Littin, K.E., and D.J. Mellor. 2005. Strategic animal welfare issues: Ethical and animal welfare issues arising from the killing of wildlife for disease control and environmental reasons. OIE Revue Scientifique Et Technique 24: 767–782. https://doi.org/10.20506/rst.24.2.1611.
Madden, F., and B. McQuinn. 2014. Conservation’s blind spot: The case for conflict transformation in wildlife conservation. Biological Conservation 178: 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.07.015.
Maletzke, B.T., R.B. Wielgus, D.J. Pierce, D.A. Martorello, and D.W. Stinson. 2016. A meta-population model to predict occurrence and recovery of wolves. The Journal of Wildlife Management 80: 368–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.1008.
Manfredo, M.J., T.L. Teel, and K.L. Henry. 2009. Linking society and environment: A multilevel model of shifting wildlife value orientations in the western United States. Social Science Quarterly 90: 407–427. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2009.00624.x.
Manfredo, M.J., L. Sullivan, A.W. Don Carlos, A.M. Dietsch, T.L. Teel, A.D. Bright, and J. Bruskotter. 2018. America’s wildlife values: The social context of Wildlife Management in the U.S. Fort Collins: Colorado State University, Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources.
Marchini, S., K.M.P.M.B. Ferraz, A. Zimmermann, T. Guimarães-Luiz, R. Morato, P.L.P. Correa, and D.W. Macdonald. 2019. Planning for coexistence in a complex human-dominated world. Human-Wildlife Interactions. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108235730.022.
McManus, J.S., A.J. Dickman, D. Gaynor, B.H. Smuts, and D.W. Macdonald. 2015. Dead or alive? Comparing costs and benefits of lethal and non-lethal human-wildlife conflict mitigation on livestock farms. Oryx 49: 687–695. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313001610.
McManus, J., S.A. Goets, W.J. Bond, J.R. Henschel, B. Smuts, and S.J. Milton. 2018. Effects of short-term intensive trampling on Karoo vegetation§. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 35: 311–318. https://doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2018.1529706.
Mead, D., and L. Moseley. 2001. The use of the Delphi as a research approach. Nurse Researcher. https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2001.07.8.4.4.c6162.
Naidoo, R., A. Balmford, R. Costanza, B. Fisher, R.E. Green, B. Lehner, T.R. Malcolm, and T.H. Ricketts. 2008. Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 9495–9500. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0707823105.
Nattrass, N., B. Conradie, J. Stephens, and M. Drouilly. 2020. Culling recolonizing mesopredators increases livestock losses: Evidence from the South African Karoo. AMBIO 49: 1222–1231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01260-4.
Naughton-Treves, L., R. Grossberg, and A. Treves. 2003. Paying for tolerance: Rural citizens’ attitudes toward wolf depredation and compensation. Conservation Biology 17: 1500–1511. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00060.x.
Norström, A.V., C. Cvitanovic, M.F. Löf, S. West, C. Wyborn, P. Balvanera, A.T. Bednarek, E.M. Bennett, et al. 2020. Principles for knowledge co-production in sustainability research. Nature Sustainability 3: 182–190. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0448-2.
O’Brien, K. 2018. Is the 1.5°C target possible? Exploring the three spheres of transformation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 31: 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.04.010.
Ogada, M.O., R. Woodroffe, N.O. Oguge, and L. Frank. 2003. Limiting depredation by African carnivores: The role of livestock husbandry. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00061.x.
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2014. Oregon wolf conservation and management plan. Oregon Administrative Rules 635: 1–9.
Pahl-Wostl, C. 2002. Towards sustainability in the water sector—The importance of human actors and processes of social learning. Aquatic Sciences 64: 394.
Palmer, A.R., and J.E. Bennett. 2013. Degradation of communal rangelands in South Africa: Towards an improved understanding to inform policy understanding to inform policy. African Journal of Range & Forage Science. https://doi.org/10.2989/10220119.2013.779596.
Pannell, D.J., and F. Vanclay. 2011. Changing land management : Adoption of new practices by rural landholders. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
Pannell, D., G. Marshall, N. Barr, A. Curtis, F. Vanclay, and R. Wilkinson. 2006. Understanding and promoting adoption of conservation practices by rural landholders. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 46: 1407–1424. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05037.
Patterson, J., K. Schulz, J. Vervoort, C. Adler, M. Hurlbert, S. van der Hel, A. Schmidt, A. Barau, et al. 2015. “Transformations towards sustainability” Emerging approaches, critical reflections, and a research agenda. Lund and Amsterdam: Earth System Governance Project.
Patterson, J., K. Schulz, J. Vervoort, S. van der Hel, O. Widerberg, C. Adler, M. Hurlbert, K. Anderton, et al. 2017. Exploring the governance and politics of transformations towards sustainability. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 24: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2016.09.001.
Powell, C. 2002. Methodological issues in nursing research. The Delphi technique: Myths and realities. Journal of Advanced Nursing 41: 376.
Price, R.J., and R.B. Hacker. 2009. Grain & Graze: An innovative triple bottom line approach to collaborative and multidisciplinary mixed-farming systems research, development and extension. Animal Production Science 49: 729–735. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA08306.
Prowse, T.A.A., C.N. Johnson, P. Cassey, C.J.A. Bradshaw, and B.W. Brook. 2015. Ecological and economic benefits to cattle rangelands of restoring an apex predator. Journal of Applied Ecology 52: 455–466. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.12378.
Rickards, L., and S.M. Howden. 2012. Transformational adaptation: Agriculture and climate change. Crop and Pasture Science 63: 240–250. https://doi.org/10.1071/CP11172.
Ripple, W.J., J.A. Estes, R.L. Beschta, C.C. Wilmers, E.G. Ritchie, M. Hebblewhite, J. Berger, B. Elmhagen, et al. 2014. Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484.
Ripple, W.J., G. Chapron, J.V. López-Bao, S.M. Durant, D.W. MacDonald, P.A. Lindsey, E.L. Bennett, R.L. Beschta, et al. 2017. Conserving the world’s megafauna and biodiversity: The fierce urgency of now. BioScience 67: 197–200. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw168.
Rodela, R. 2011. Social learning and natural resource management: the emergence of three research perspectives. Ecology and Society 16 (4): 30. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04554-160430.
Rust, N., and L.L. Marker. 2013. Attitudes toward predators and conservancies among Namibian farmers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 18: 463–468.
Saldana, J. 2009. Qualitative researcher’s companion. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Santiago-Ávila, F.J., and W.S. Lynn. 2020. Bridging compassion and justice in conservation ethics. Biological Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108648.
Schurch, M.P., J. Mcmanus, S. Goets, L.E. Pardo, D. Gaynor, I. Samuels, C. Cupido, V. Couldridge, et al. 2021. Wildlife-friendly livestock management promotes mammalian biodiversity recovery on a semi-arid Karoo farm in South Africa. Frontiers in Conservation Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcosc.2021.652415.
Schwartz, C.C., M.A. Haroldson, K.A. Gunther, and D. Moody. 2001. Distribution of grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem, 1999–2000. Ursus 13: 203–212. https://doi.org/10.2307/3873200.
Sellberg, M.M., S.T. Borgström, A.V. Norström, and G.D. Peterson. 2017. Improving participatory resilience assessment by cross-fertilizing the resilience alliance and transition movement approaches. Ecology and Society. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09051-220128.
Shivik, J.A., A. Treves, and P. Callahan. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: Primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17: 1531–1537.
Slagle, K., R. Zajac, J. Bruskotter, R. Wilson, and S. Prange. 2013. Building tolerance for bears: A communications experiment. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 863–869. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.515.
Spencer, K., M. Sambrook, S. Bremner-Harrison, D. Cilliers, R.W. Yarnell, R. Brummer, and K. Whitehouse-Tedd. 2020. Livestock guarding dogs enable human-carnivore coexistence: First evidence of equivalent carnivore occupancy on guarded and unguarded farms. Biological Conservation 241: 108256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108256.
Stern, M.J. 2018. Social science theory for environmental sustainability: A practical guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198793182.001.0001.
Stone, S.A., S.W. Breck, J. Timberlake, P.M. Haswell, F. Najera, B.S. Bean, and D.J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing Wolf-sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw188.
Swanepoel, L.H., P. Lindsey, M.J. Somers, W. van Hoven, and F. Dalerum. 2013. Extent and fragmentation of suitable leopard habitat in South Africa. Animal Conservation 16: 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00566.x.
The Resilience Alliance. 2010. Assessing resilience in social-ecological systems: Workbook for practitioners. Halifax: Resilience Alliance.
Treves, A., and J. Bruskotter. 2014. Tolerance for predatory wildlife. Science 344: 476–477. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1252690.
Treves, A., M. Krofel, and J. McManus. 2016. Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14: 380–388. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1312.
Van Eeden, L. 2020. Exploring nationality and social identity to explain attitudes toward conservation actions in the United States and Australia. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13488.
Van Bommel, L., and C.N. Johnson. 2012. Good dog! Using livestock guardian dogs to protect livestock from predators in Australia’s extensive grazing systems. Wildlife Research 39: 220–229. https://doi.org/10.1071/WR11135.
Van Den Bergh, J.C.J.M., B. Truffer, and G. Kallis. 2011. Environmental innovation and societal transitions: Introduction and overview. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 1: 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2011.04.010.
van Eeden, L.M., A. Eklund, J.R.B. Miller, J.V. López-Bao, G. Chapron, M.R. Cejtin, M.S. Crowther, C.R. Dickman, et al. 2018a. Carnivore conservation needs evidence-based livestock protection. PLoS Biology 16: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005577.
van Eeden, L.M., M.S. Crowther, C.R. Dickman, D.W. Macdonald, W.J. Ripple, E.G. Ritchie, and T.M. Newsome. 2018b. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conservation Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12959.
van Vuuren, D.P., N. Nakicenovic, K. Riahi, A. Brew-Hammond, D. Kammen, V. Modi, M. Nilsson, and K.R. Smith. 2012. An energy vision: The transformation towards sustainability-interconnected challenges and solutions. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4: 18–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.01.004.
Walker, B., and D. Salt. 2006. Resilience thinking : Sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Wallach, A.D., D. Ramp, and A.J. O’Neill. 2017. Cattle mortality on a predator-friendly station in central Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyw156.
Waudby, H.P., B.P. Smith, G.M. Robinson, S. Petit, and G. Earl. 2020. Applying a social-ecological system framework to diagnose drivers of dingo management practices. Australian Zoologist. https://doi.org/10.7882/az.2020.036.
White, C. 2012. Revolution on the range: The rise of a New Ranch in the American West. Washington, DC: Island Press Shearwater Books.
Wilson, S.M., M.J. Madel, D.J. Mattson, J.M. Graham, J.A. Burchfield, and J.M. Belsky. 2005. Natural landscape features, human-related attractants, and conflict hotspots: A spatial analysis of human–grizzly bear conflicts. Ursus 16: 117–129. https://doi.org/10.2192/1537-6176.
Woodroffe, R., and Frank, L. 2005. Lethal control of African lions (Panthera leo): local and regional population impacts. Animal Conservation. The Zoological Society of London. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943004001829
Woodroffe, R., and J.R. Ginsberg. 1998. Edge effects and extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280: 2126
Young, J.K., J. Steuber, A. Few, A. Baca, and Z. Strong. 2019. When strange bedfellows go all in: A template for implementing non-lethal strategies aimed at reducing carnivore predation of livestock. Animal Conservation 22: 207–209. https://doi.org/10.1111/acv.12453.
We wish to acknowledge the individuals who reviewed the models featured in this publication. This research was generously supported by the Research Excellence Scholarship provided by the University of Technology Sydney. The South African research was facilitated by the Landmark Foundation who acknowledge support from the National Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Development Bank of Southern Africa, Global Environmental Facility, Green Fund, United Nations Environmental Program, United Nations Development Program, and Landmark Foundation Trust.
The research has been supported by the Research Excellence Scholarship provided by the University of Technology Sydney.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
ETH18-2568—HREC University of Technology Sydney.
Consent to participate
All of the stakeholders engaged in the research provided informed consent to participate in the research.
Consent for publication
I declare that this is original work and has not been published before, nor is it under consideration for publication anywhere else. This publication has been approved by all co-authors as well as by the responsible authorities.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Boronyak, L., Jacobs, B., Wallach, A. et al. Pathways towards coexistence with large carnivores in production systems. Agric Hum Values (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-021-10224-y
- Sustainable agriculture
- Animal welfare
- Human-wildlife coexistence
- Extensive grazing
- Social-Ecological Systems