Stacking functions: identifying motivational frames guiding urban agriculture organizations and businesses in the United States and Canada
- 892 Downloads
While a growing body of scholarship identifies urban agriculture’s broad suite of benefits and drivers, it remains unclear how motivations to engage in urban agriculture (UA) interrelate or how they differ across cities and types of organizations. In this paper, we draw on survey responses collected from more than 250 UA organizations and businesses from 84 cities across the United States and Canada. Synthesizing the results of our quantitative analysis of responses (including principal components analysis), qualitative analysis of textual data excerpted from open-ended responses, and a review of existing literature, we describe six motivational frames that appear to guide organizations and businesses in their UA practice: Entrepreneurial, Sustainable Development, Educational, Eco-Centric, DIY Secessionist, and Radical. Identifying how practitioners stack functions and frame their work is a first step in helping to differentiate the diverse and often contradictory efforts transforming urban food environments. We demonstrate that a wide range of objectives drive UA and that political orientations and discourses differ by geography, organizational type and size, and funding regime. These six paradigms provide a basic framework for understanding UA that can guide more in-depth studies of the gap between intentions and outcomes, while helping link historically and geographically specific insights to wider social and political economic processes.
KeywordsFood justice Framing Motivations Non-profit organizations Survey Urban gardens
Non-profit non-governmental organization
Principal components analysis
The authors are extremely grateful to all of the respondents for taking the time to complete the survey. They also wish to thank Alexandrine Boudreault-Fournier for proofreading the French survey, Taren Evans for her assistance in identifying potential survey respondents, and Anthony Levenda for assistance with coding responses. The comments of three anonymous reviewers were particularly useful. This research was funded in part by a PSU Faculty Enhancement Grant.
- Alkon, A. H. 2012. Black, white, and green: Farmers markets, race, and the green economy. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Alkon, A. H., and J. Agyeman, eds. 2011. Cultivating food justice: Race, class, and sustainability. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Altieri, M. A. 1995. Agroecology: The science of sustainable agriculture. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Bassett, T. J. 1981. Reaping on the margins: A century of community gardening in America. Landscape 25 (2): 1–8.Google Scholar
- Bettencourt-McCarthy, W. 2013. Protesters want Queen’s Park to rethink food policy. Torontoist, 2 May. http://torontoist.com/2013/05/protesters-want-queens-park-to-rethink-food-policy/. Accessed 16 Jan 2017.
- Boily, M.-E. 2012. L’agriculture urbaine et periurbaine au Québec. Quebec City: Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère de l’Agriculture, des Pêcheries et de l’Alimentation. http://www.mapaq.gouv.qc.ca/fr/Publications/Agricultureurbaineetperiurbaine.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2017.
- Burns, G. 2016. Documentary explores Hantz Farms “land grab” in Detroit. MLive.com, 24 July. http://www.mlive.com/news/detroit/index.ssf/2016/07/land_grab_documentary_looks_at.html. Accessed 16 Jan 2017.
- Christensen, R. 2007. SPIN farming: Improving revenues on sub-acre plots. Urban Agriculture Magazine 19: 25–26.Google Scholar
- Drengson, A., and Y. Inoue, eds. 1995. The deep ecology movement: An introductory anthology. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
- Fairfax, S. K., Dyble, L. N., Guthey, G. T., Gwin, L., Moore, M., and Sokolove, J. 2012. California cuisine and just food. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Gliessman, S. R. 2000. Agroecology: Ecological processes in sustainable agriculture. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. 1974. Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
- Gottlieb, R. 1993. Forcing the spring: The transformation of the American environmental movement. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Gottlieb, R., and Joshi, A. 2010. Food justice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. 2000. Spaces of hope. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Hathaway, M. D. 2015. Agroecology and permaculture: Addressing key ecological problems by rethinking and redesigning agricultural systems. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 6: 1–12.Google Scholar
- Higgs, E. 2003. Nature by design: People, natural process, and ecological restoration. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Kaufman, J. L., and M. Bailkey. 2000. Farming inside cities: Entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.Google Scholar
- KLRU. 2015. Warrior and family support center healing gardens. Central Texas Gardener, 7 Nov. http://www.klru.org/ctg/episode/taking-care-of-trees/. Accessed 31 Jan 2017.
- Kroonenberg, P. M. 2004. Principal components analysis. In The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods, eds. M. S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, and T. F. Liao. London: SAGE Publications. http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-encyclopedia-of-social-science-research-methods/n748.xml. Accessed 2 Nov 2015.
- Kropotkin, P. 1902. Mutual aid: A factor of evolution. London: William Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Lawson, L. J. 2005. City bountiful: A century of community gardening. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- MacRae, R., Gallant, E., Patel, S., Michalak, M., Bunch, M., and Schaffner, S. 2010. Could Toronto provide 10% of its fresh vegetable requirements from within its own boundaries? Matching consumption requirements with growing spaces. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development 1(2): 105–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McClintock, N., and M. Simpson. 2014. A survey of urban agriculture organizations and businesses in the US & Canada: Preliminary results. Portland State University, Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning. http://archives.pdx.edu/ds/psu/12615. Accessed 10 Mar 2017.
- McClintock, N., and Simpson, M. 2016. Cultivating in Cascadia: Urban agriculture policy and practice in Portland, Seattle, and Vancouver. In Cities of farmers: Problems, possibilities and processes of producing food in cities, eds. J. Dawson, and A. Morales, 59–82, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.Google Scholar
- Miller, J. R. 1996. Shingwauk’s vision: A history of native residential schools. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
- Mills, S. 2010. The empire within: Postcolonial thought and political activism in sixties Montreal. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
- Monsanto. 2015. Our commitment to sustainable agriculture. http://www.monsanto.com/whoweare/pages/our-commitment-to-sustainable-agriculture.aspx. Accessed 27 Oct 2015.
- Mougeot, L. J. A. 2005. Agropolis: The social, political and environmental dimensions of urban agriculture. Ottawa: IDRC.Google Scholar
- Norberg-Hodge, H., T. Merrifield, and S. Gorelick. 2002. Bringing the food economy home: Local alternatives to global agribusiness. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
- Orsini, F., Gasperi, D., Marchetti, L., Piovene, C., Draghetti, S., Ramazzotti, S., Bazzocchi, G., and Gianquinto, G. 2014. Exploring the production capacity of rooftop gardens (RTGs) in urban agriculture: The potential impact on food and nutrition security, biodiversity and other ecosystem services in the city of Bologna. Food Security 6(6): 781–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pinder, D. 2005. Visions of the city: Utopianism, power and politics in twentieth-century urbanism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Portland City Council. 2009. Resolution No. 36699: Establish a Better Together Organic Garden at Portland City Hall to encourage the production of community-grown food and urge Portland and Multnomah County residents to assist hunger relief efforts by supporting the Plant a Row for the Hungry campaign. http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=275676. Accessed 10 March 2017.
- Reynolds, K., and Cohen, N. 2016. Beyond the kale: Urban agriculture and social justice activism in New York City. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Sayer, D. 1989. The Violence of abstraction: The analytic foundations of historical materialism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Smit, J., Ratta, A., and Nasr, J. 1996. Urban agriculture: Food, jobs and sustainable cities. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
- Snow, D. A. 2008. Framing processes, ideology, and discursive fields. In The Blackwell companion to social movements, eds. D. A. Snow, S. A. Soule, and H. Kriesi, 380–412. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Tavernise, S. 2011. Vegetable gardens are booming in a fallow economy. The New York Times, 8 Sep. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/09/us/09gardening.html. Accessed 30 Jan 2012.
- van Veenhuizen, R. 2006. Cities farming for the future: Urban agriculture for green and productive cities. Ottawa: IDRC/RUAF.Google Scholar
- Viljoen, A. 2005. Continuous productive urban landscapes: Designing urban agriculture for sustainable cities. Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Ville de Montréal. 2012. Etat de l’agriculture urbaine à Montréal. Rapport de consultation publique. Montreal: Office de Consultation Publique de Montréal. http://ocpm.qc.ca/sites/ocpm.qc.ca/files/pdf/P58/rapport_au.pdf. Accessed 10 March 2017.
- Waterman, S. D. 1918. History of the Berkeley schools. Berkeley: The Professional Press.Google Scholar
- Wittman, H., A. A. Desmarais, and N. Wiebe, eds. 2012. Food sovereignty in Canada: Creating just and sustainable food systems. Halifax, NS: Fernwood Publishing Co., Ltd.Google Scholar