Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 251–265 | Cite as

Grounding the financialization of farmland: perspectives on financial actors as new land owners in rural Australia

  • Sarah Ruth Sippel
  • Nicolette Larder
  • Geoffrey Lawrence
Article

Abstract

Sparked by the conjunction of food, fuel, and financial crises, there has been an increasing awareness in recent years of the scarce and finite character of natural resources. Productive resources such as agricultural land have been touted by financial actors—such as merchant banks, pension funds, and investment companies—as providing the basis for a range of new “alternative” financial asset classes and products. While the drivers, motives, and rationales behind the increasing interest of turning farmland into a financial asset class have been traced by a number of scholars, the interpretations of, and interactions with, financial actors at the community level have received less attention. Based on qualitative research in rural Australia, this paper reveals the grounds on which finance-backed investments have been accepted and accommodated by communities in rural Australia and delineates the reasons that have led to feelings of unease or refusal. The paper thereby demonstrates that the financialization of farmland is neither abstract nor one-sided but rather a multidimensional process that not only includes financial actors but also the impacted rural populations in various ways. Positioning the activities of financial actors in Australia within the emerging research on the financialization of farmland, the paper endorses context-sensitive analyses to better interpret these recent transformations of the agri-food system.

Keywords

Financialization of farmland Rural landownership change Community perspectives Australia 

References

  1. ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics). 2012. Australian farming and farmers. http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features10Dec+2012. Accessed 7 April 2016.
  2. Ariza-Montobbio, P., S. Lele, G. Kallis, and J. Martínez-Alier. 2010. The political ecology of Jatropha plantations for biodiesel in Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Peasant Studies 37(4): 875–897. doi:10.1080/03066150.2010.512462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrighi, G. 1994. The long twentieth century: Money, power, and the origins of our times. London/New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  4. Barlow, K., and C. Cocklin. 2003. Reconstructing rurality and community: Plantation forestry in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Rural Studies 19: 503–519. doi:10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00029-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baud, C., and C. Durand. 2012. Financialization, globalization and the making of profits by leading retailers. Socio-Economic Review 10(2): 241–266. doi:10.1093/ser/mwr016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry, H.L., L.C. Botterill, G. Cockfield, and N. Ding. 2016. Identifying and measuring agrarian sentiment in regional Australia. Agriculture and Human Values. doi:10.1007/s10460-016-9684-5.Google Scholar
  7. Borras, S.M.J., and J. Franco. 2013. Global land grabbing and political reactions “from below”. Third World Quarterly 34(9): 1723–1747. doi:10.1080/01436597.2013.843845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broadbent, J., and B. Pritchard. 2011. Is farmland “up for grabs”? Patterns of land ownership in rural NSW. Farm Policy Journal 8(2): 11–19.Google Scholar
  9. Brunson, M.W. 1993. “Socially acceptable” forestry: What does it imply for ecosystem management? Western Journal of Applied Forestry 8(4): 116–119.Google Scholar
  10. Bryant, L. 1999. The detraditionalization of occupational identities in farming in South Australia. Sociologia Ruralis 39(2): 236–261. doi:10.1111/1467-9523.00104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burch, D., and G. Lawrence. 2013. Financialization in agri-food supply chains: Private equity and the transformation of the retail sector. Agriculture and Human Values 30(2): 247–258. doi:10.1007/s10460-009-9219-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burch, D., and G. Lawrence. 2009. Towards a third food regime: Behind the transformation. Agriculture and Human Values 26(4): 267–279. doi:10.1007/s10460-009-9219-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carroll, M.S., Á.N. Dhubháin, and C.G. Flint. 2011. Back where they once belonged? Local response to afforestation in Country Kerry. Ireland. Sociologia Ruralis 51(1): 35–53. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9523.2010.00523.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. CEWO (Commonwealth Environmental Water Office). 2015. Macquarie catchment. http://www.environment.gov.au/water/cewo/catchment/macquarie. Accessed 5 November 2015.
  15. Cheshire, L., and M. Woods. 2013. Globally engaged farmers as transnational actors: Navigating the landscape of agri-food globalization. Geoforum 44: 232–242. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christophers, B. 2015. The limits to financialization. Dialogues in Human Geography 5(2): 183–200. doi:10.1177/2043820615588153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christopherson, S., R. Martin, and J. Pollard. 2013. Financialisation: Roots and repercussions. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 6: 351–357. doi:10.1093/cjres/rst023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clapp, J. 2014. Financialization, distance, and global food politics. Journal of Peasant Studies 41(5): 797–814. doi:10.1080/03066150.2013.875536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clapp, J., and E. Helleiner. 2012. Troubled futures? The global food crisis and the politics of agricultural derivatives regulation. Review of International Political Economy 19(2): 181–207. doi:10.1080/09692290.2010.514528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clapp, J., S.R. Isakson, and O. Visser. 2016. The complex dynamics of agriculture as a financial asset: Introduction to symposium. Agriculture and Human Values. doi:10.1007/s10460-016-9682-7.Google Scholar
  21. Clyde Agriculture. 2011–2012. Home: The sale of Clyde agriculture. http://clydeag.com.au/index.shtml. Accessed 2 March 2012.
  22. Cocklin, C., J. Dibden, and N. Mautner. 2006. From market to multifunctionality? Land stewardship in Australia. The Geographical Journal 172(3): 197–205. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4959.2006.00206.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cotula, L. 2012. The international political economy of the global land rush: A critical appraisal of trends, scale, geography, and drivers. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(3–4): 649–680. doi:10.1080/03066150.2012.674940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daniel, S. 2012. Situating private equity capital in the land grab debate. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(3–4): 703–729. doi:10.1080/03066150.2012.674941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Desmarais, A.A., D. Qualman, A. Magnan, and N. Wiebe. 2015. Land grabbing and land concentration: Mapping changing patterns of farmland ownership in three rural communities in Saskatchewan. Canada. Canadian Food Studies 2(1): 16–47. doi:10.15353/cfs-rcea.v2i1.52.Google Scholar
  26. DIPNR (Department of Infrastructure, Planning, and Natural Resources). 2004. A guide to the water sharing plan for the Macquarie and Cudgegong regulated rivers water source. Sydney.Google Scholar
  27. Dixon, M. 2014. The land grab, finance capital, and food regime restructuring: The case of Egypt. Review of African Political Economy 41(140): 232–248. doi:10.1080/03056244.2013.831342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ducastel, A., and W. Anseeuw. 2016. Agriculture as an asset class: Reshaping the South African farming sector. Agriculture and Human Values (published online 18 January 2016). doi: 10.1007/s10460-016-9683-6.
  29. Edelman, M., C. Oya, and S.M.J. Borras. 2013. Global land grabs: Historical processes, theoretical and methodological implications, and current trajectories. Third World Quarterly 34(9): 1517–1531. doi:10.1080/01436597.2013.850190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Elliott, J. 2005. Using narrative in social research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Epstein, G. 2005. Introduction: Financialization and the world economy. In Financialization and the world economy, ed. G. Epstein, 3–16. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  32. Eves, C., and M. Painter. 2008. A comparison of farmland returns in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and United States. Australian and New Zealand Property Journal 1(7): 588–598.Google Scholar
  33. Fairbairn, M. 2014. “Like gold with yield”: Evolving intersections between farmland and finance. Journal of Peasant Studies 41(5): 777–795. doi:10.1080/03066150.2013.873977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finlayson, A. 2009. Financialization, financial literacy, and asset-based welfare. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 11: 400–421. doi:10.1111/j.1467-856X.2009.00378.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Flyvbjerg, B. 2001. Making social science matter. Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gertel, J., and S.R. Sippel. 2016. The financialization of agriculture and food. In International handbook of rural studies, ed. M. Shucksmith, and D.L. Brown, 215–226. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Gray, I., and G. Lawrence. 2001. A future for regional Australia: escaping global misfortune. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Gunnoe, A. 2014. The political economy of institutional landownership: Neorentier society and the financialization of land. Rural Sociology 79(4): 478–504. doi:10.1111/ruso.12045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hall, R., M. Edelman, S.M.J. Borras, I. Scoones, B. White, and W. Wolford. 2015. Resistance, acquiescence or incorporation? An introduction to land grabbing and political reactions “from below”. Journal of Peasant Studies 42(3–4): 467–488. doi:10.1080/03066150.2015.1036746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hall, S. 2011. Geographies of money and finance II: Financialization and financial subjects. Progress in Human Geography 36(3): 403–411. doi:10.1177/0309132511403889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hassad Australia. 2015. Properties and production focus. http://www.hassad.com.au/Properties.aspx. Accessed 16 October 2015.
  42. Hassad Food. 2011. Inspired for success. Annual report 2010. Doha.Google Scholar
  43. Hassad Food. n.d. Investors. http://www.hassad.com/Aboutus/invstors/tabid/187/language/en-US/Default.aspx. Accessed 30 July 2014.
  44. Hersperger, A.M., M.-P. Gennaio, P.H. Verburg, and M. Bürgi. 2010. Linking land change with driving forces and actors: Four conceptual models. Ecology and Society 15(4): Art. 1. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art1/. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  45. HighQuest Partners. 2010. Private financial sector investment in farmland and agricultural infrastructure. OECD Food, Agriculture, and Fisheries Working Papers 33, OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. Isakson, S.R. 2015. Derivatives for development? Small-farmer vulnerability and the financialization of climate risk management. Journal of Agrarian Change 15(4): 569–580. doi:10.1111/joac.12124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Isakson, S.R. 2014. Food and finance: The financial transformation of agro-food supply chains. Journal of Peasant Studies 41(5): 749–775. doi:10.1080/03066150.2013.874340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jepps, L. 2015. Revision to the foreign investment regime in Australia. http://www.ah.com.au/_uploads/documents/Revision%20to%20the%20Foreign%20Investment%20Regime%20in%20Australia.pdf. Accessed 28 March 2016.
  49. John Swire & Sons Ltd. 2012. About Swire headquarters. http://www.swire.com/eng/about/headquarters.htm. Accessed 2 March 2012.
  50. Keogh, M. 2014a. Optimizing Australian agriculture’s comparative advantage. Farm Policy Journal 11: 1–7.Google Scholar
  51. Keogh, M., and Tomlinson, A. 2014. Australia has an open door for foreign investment, but voters hold the keys. http://www.farminstitute.org.au/newsletter/2014/February_2014/February_2014_featurearticle.html. Accessed 22 February 2016.
  52. Kitney, D. 2013. Twynam hangs urban hopes on hybrid house. The Australian Business Review. http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/property/twynam-hangs-urban-hopes-on-hybrid-house/story-fn9656lz-1226594300648. Accessed 30 July 2015.
  53. Krippner, G.R. 2011. Capitalizing on crisis: The political origins of the rise of finance. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Krippner, G.R. 2005. The financialization of the American economy. Socio-Economic Review 3(2): 173–208. doi:10.1093/SER/mwi008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuns, B., O. Visser, and A. Wästfelt. 2016. The stock market and the steppe: The challenges faced by stock-market financed, Nordic farming ventures in Russia and Ukraine. Journal of Rural Studies 45: 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lang, T., and M. Heasman. 2015. Food wars: The global battle for mouths, minds, and markets, 2nd ed. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Langley, P. 2008. The everyday life of global finance: Saving and borrowing in Anglo-America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Langley, P. 2006. The making of investor subjects in Anglo-American pensions. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 24: 919–934. doi:10.1068/d405t.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Larder, N. 2015. Space for pluralism? Examining the Malibya land grab. Journal of Peasant Studies 42(3–4): 839–858. doi:10.1080/03066150.2015.1029461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larder, N., S.R. Sippel, and G. Lawrence. 2015. Finance capital, food security narratives, and Australian agricultural land. Journal of Agrarian Change 15(4): 592–603. doi:10.1111/joac.12108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lawrence, G., and H. Campbell. 2014. Neoliberalism in the antipodes: Understanding the influence and limits of the neoliberal political project. In The neoliberal regime in the agri-food sector: Crisis, resilience, and restructuring, ed. S.A. Wolf, and A. Bonanno, 263–283. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Lawrence, G., C. Richards, and K. Lyons. 2013. Food security in Australia in an era of neoliberalism, productivism, and climate change. Journal of Rural Studies 29: 30–39. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.12.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leyshon, A., and N. Thrift. 1998. Reading financial services: Texts, consumers, and financial literacy. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 16: 29–55. doi:10.1068/d160029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leyshon, A., S. French, and P. Signoretta. 2008. Financial exclusion and the geography of bank and building society branch closure in Britain. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 33(4): 447–465. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2008.00323.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li, T.M. 2015. Transnational farmland investment: A risky business. Journal of Agrarian Change 15(4): 560–568. doi:10.1111/joac.12109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li, T.M. 2014. What is land? Assembling a resource for global investment. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39(4): 589–602. doi:10.1111/tran.12065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Luyt, I., N. Santos, and A. Carita. 2013. Emerging investment trends in primary agriculture: A review of equity funds and other foreign-led investments in the CEE and CIS Region. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  68. Magnan, A. 2015. The financialization of agri-food in Canada and Australia: Corporate farmland and farm ownership in the grains and oilseed sector. Journal of Rural Studies 41: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2015.06.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Magnan, A. 2012. New avenues of farm corporatization in the prairie grains sector: Farm family entrepreneurs and the case of One Earth Farms. Agriculture and Human Values 29: 161–175. doi:10.1007/s10460-011-9327-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martin, R. 2002. Financialization of daily life. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Martin, S., and J. Clapp. 2015. Finance for agriculture or agriculture for finance? Journal of Agrarian Change 15(4): 549–559. doi:10.1111/joac.12110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McKenzie, F. 2014. Trajectories of change in rural landscapes: The end of the mixed farm? In Rural change in Australia: population, economy, environment, ed. R. Dufty-Jones, and J. Connell, 151–167. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  73. McManus, P., J. Walmsley, N. Argent, S. Baum, L. Bourke, J. Martin, B. Pritchard, and T. Sorensen. 2012. Rural community and rural resilience: What is important to farmers in keeping their country towns alive? Journal of Rural Studies 28(1): 20–29. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McMichael, P. 2012. The land grab and corporate food regime restructuring. Journal of Peasant Studies 39(3–4): 681–701. doi:10.1080/03066150.2012.661369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mercer, A., K. de Rijke, and W. Dressler. 2014. Silences in the boom: Coal seam gas, neoliberalizing discourse, and the future of regional Australia. Journal of Political Ecology 21: 279–302.Google Scholar
  76. Murphy, S., D. Burch, and J. Clapp. 2012. Cereal secrets: The world’s largest grain traders and global agriculture. Oxfam: Oxfam Research Report.Google Scholar
  77. MDBA (Murray-Darling Basin Authority). 2010. Guide to the proposed Basin Plan. http://www.mdba.gov.au/kid/guide/. Accessed 15 October 2015.
  78. Ouma, S. 2016. From financialization to operations of capital: Historicizing and disentangling the finance–farmland-nexus. Geoforum 72: 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Painter, M., and C. Eves. 2008. The financial gains from adding farmland to an international investment portfolio. Journal of Real Estate Portfolio Management 14(1): 63–73.Google Scholar
  80. Paraway Pastoral. 2016. http://www.parawaypastoral.com/about/. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  81. Pike, A., and J. Pollard. 2010. Economic geographies of financialization. Economic Geography 86(1): 29–51. doi:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2009.01057.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Plunkett, B. 2015. PrimeAg Australia 2007–13: A suitable structure for long term investment in agriculture? Australasian Agribusiness Review 23: 26–35.Google Scholar
  83. Pollard, J. 2013. Gendering capital: Financial crisis, financialization, and (an agenda for) economic geography. Progress in Human Geography 37(3): 403–423. doi:10.1177/0309132512462270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. PRD Nationwide. 2012. Foreign ownership of primary production land in NSW. First Quarter 2012.Google Scholar
  85. Pritchard, B., D. Burch, and G. Lawrence. 2007. Neither “family” nor “corporate” farming: Australian tomato growers as farm family entrepreneurs. Journal of Rural Studies 23: 75–87. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2006.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pritchard, B., M. Neave, D. Hickey, and L. Troy. 2012a. Rural land in Australia: A framework for the measurement and analysis of nationwide patterns of ownership change, aggregation, and fragmentation. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Publication No. 12/038.Google Scholar
  87. Pritchard, B., M. Neave, D. Hickey, and L. Troy. 2012b. Rural land in New South Wales: spatial patterns of ownership change, aggregation, and fragmentation. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Publication No. 12/128.Google Scholar
  88. Remund, D.L. 2010. Financial literacy explicated: The case for a clearer definition in an increasingly complex economy. The Journal of Consumer Affairs 44(2): 276–295. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.2010.01169.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Russi, L. 2013. Hungry capital: The financialization of food. Winchester/Washington: Zero Books.Google Scholar
  90. Salerno, T. 2014. Capitalizing on the financialization of agriculture: Cargill’s land investment techniques in the Philippines. Third World Quarterly 35(9): 1709–1727. doi:10.1080/01436597.2014.971567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sanyal, K. 2014. Foreign investment in Australian agriculture. http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/library/prspub/3006295/upload_binary/3006295.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf. Accessed 22 February 2016.
  92. Savills Research. 2012. International farmland: Focus 2012. London: Savills.Google Scholar
  93. Schweinsberg, S.C., S.L. Wearing, and S. Darcy. 2012. Understanding communities’ views of nature in rural industry renewal: the transition from forestry to nature-based tourism in Eden, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 20(2): 195–213. doi:10.1080/09669582.2011.596278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scoones, I., R. Hall, S.M.J. Borras, and W. Wolford. 2013. The politics of evidence: methodologies for understanding the global land rush. Journal of Peasant Studies 40(3): 469–483. doi:10.1080/03066150.2013.801341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sippel, S.R. 2015. Food security or commercial business? Gulf State investments in Australian agriculture. Journal of Peasant Studies 42(5): 981–1001. doi:10.1080/03066150.2014.990448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sippel, S.R., G. Lawrence, and D. Burch. forthcoming 2016. The financialization of farming: The Hancock company of Canada and its embedding in rural Australia. In Rural change and global processes, ed. M. Miele, V. Higgins, H. Bjørkhaug, and M. Truninger. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  97. Sommerville, M., and A. Magnan. 2015. “Pinstripes on the prairies”: Examining the financialization of farming systems in the Canadian prairie provinces. Journal of Peasant Studies 42(1): 119–144. doi:10.1080/03066150.2014.990894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. The Treasury. 2015. Government tightens rules on foreign purchases of agricultural land. Media Release, 11 February 2015. http://jbh.ministers.treasury.gov.au/media-release/005-2015/. Accessed 15 October 2015.
  99. TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America–College Retirement Equities Fund). 2015. Responsible investment in farmland. 2015 report on ethical conduct and responsible stewardship of the environment. https://www.tiaa.org/public/pdf/C26304_2015_Farmland_Report.pdf. Accessed 1 April 2016.
  100. Van der Zwan, N. 2014. Making sense of financialization. Socio-Economic Review 12: 99–129. doi:10.1093/ser/mwt020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Visser, O., J. Clapp, and R. Isakson. 2015. Introduction to a symposium on global finance and the agri-food sector: Risk and regulation. Journal of Agrarian Change 15(4): 541–548. doi:10.1111/joac.12123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. WAAM (Westchester Agriculture Asset Management). 2016. Company profile. http://www.wgimglobal.com/company-profile. Accessed 2 March 2016.
  103. WAAM (Westchester Agriculture Asset Management). 2014. Global Thoughts: 4(2), Champaign.Google Scholar
  104. WAAM (Westchester Agriculture Asset Management). 2011. Global Thoughts: 1(2), Champaign.Google Scholar
  105. WSC (Warren Shire Council). 2015. Warren Shire Council, Community Profile. http://www.communityprofile.com.au/warren/. Accessed 15 October 2015.
  106. Williams, T. 2007. Empowerment of whom and for what? Financial literacy education and the new regulation of consumer financial services. Law and Policy 29(2): 226–256. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9930.2007.00254.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Williams, K.J.H. 2011. Relative acceptance of traditional and non-traditional rural land uses: Views of residents in two regions, southern Australia. Landscape and Urban Planning 103: 55–63. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.05.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams, J.W. 2014. Feeding finance: A critical account of the shifting relations between finance, food and farming. Economy and Society 43(3): 401–431. doi:10.1080/03085147.2014.892797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Williams, K.J.H., and J. Schirmer. 2012. Understanding the relationship between social change and its impacts: The experience of rural land use change in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Rural Studies 28: 538–548. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wilson, G.A. 2008. From “weak” to “strong” multifunctionality: Conceptualizing farm-level multifunctional transitional pathways. Journal of Rural Studies 24: 367–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wilson, G.A. 2001. From productivism to post-productivism … and back again? Exploring the (un)changed natural and mental landscapes of European agriculture. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 26: 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Ruth Sippel
    • 1
  • Nicolette Larder
    • 2
  • Geoffrey Lawrence
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Area StudiesUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Division of Geography and PlanningUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  3. 3.School of Social ScienceThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations