Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 305–322 | Cite as

Multi-functional landscapes from the grassroots? The role of rural producer movements

  • Abigail K. Hart
  • Philip McMichael
  • Jeffrey C. Milder
  • Sara J. Scherr
Article

Abstract

Around the world, agricultural landscapes are increasingly seen as “multi-functional” spaces, expected to deliver food supplies while improving rural livelihoods and protecting and restoring healthy ecosystems. To support this array of functions and benefits, governments and civil society in many regions are now promoting integrated farm- and landscape-scale management strategies, in lieu of fragmented management strategies. While rural producers are fundamental to achieving multi-functional landscapes, they are frequently viewed as targets of, or barriers to, landscape-oriented initiatives, rather than as leading agents of change. In reality, however, rural producers in many areas have embraced elements of multi-functional land management. In this paper, we explore the role and recent evolution of producer movements in influencing multi-functional farm and landscape management. We explore these roles through six case studies, including a land reform movement in Brazil, indigenous territorial development in Bolivia, conservation agriculture associations in Canada, environmental cooperatives in the Netherlands, indigenous and biocultural heritage associations in Peru, and Landcare groups in the Philippines. These experiences suggest that producer movements are playing pivotal roles in supporting landscape multi-functionality, not only through agroecological farming practices but also through off-farm efforts to conserve ecosystems and support multi-stakeholder landscape planning. On the other hand, interests of producer movements are not always fully aligned with multi-functional landscape management approaches. The contribution of producer movements to multi-functional landscapes depends on these movements including farm and landscape stewardship in their values and goals, and having the political support and capacity to engage meaningfully in multi-stakeholder processes.

Keywords

Agriculture Agroecology Diversified farming systems Farmer organization Landscape Multi-functional Producer movements Integrated landscape management 

Abbreviations

ANAPQUI

Asociación Nacional de Productores de Quinua, The National Quinoa Producers’ Association

ATO

Alternative trade organization

BMP

Best management practice

CCA

Community Conserved Area

CIP

International Potato Center

COCAMP

Cooperativa dos Assentados da Reforma Agraria do Pontal, Agrarian Reform Settlers’ Cooperative in the Pontal

CSFSP

Canada–Saskatchewan Farmer Stewardship Program

ICRAF

World Agroforestry Center

IFOAM

International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

IPE

Institute of Ecological Research

MST

Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra, Rural Landless Workers’ Movement

NFW

Northern Friesian Woodlands Agricultural Cooperative

NGO

Non-government organization

NVS

Natural vegetative strips

PFRA

Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act

PROQUINAT

Natural Quinoa Production Standard

SSCA

Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association

References

  1. Alter Eco. 2013. Alter Eco-ANAPQUI partnership model. Alter Eco. http://www.alterecofoods.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Alter-Eco-ANAPQUI-Partnership-Model.pdf. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
  2. Altieri, M.A. 1995. Agroecology: The science of sustainable agriculture. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altieri, M.A., and V.M. Toledo. 2011. The agroecological revolution in Latin America: Rescuing nature, ensuring food sovereignty and empowering peasants. Journal of Peasant Studies 38: 587–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Argumedo, A. 2008. The Potato Park, Peru: Conserving agrobiodiversity in an Andean indigenous biocultural heritage area. Protected landscapes and agrobiodiversity values. Volume 1 in the series, Protected landscapes and seascapes. Geneva: IUCN & GTZ.Google Scholar
  5. Argumedo, A., and M.P. Pimbert. 2005. Traditional resource rights and indigenous people in the Andes. London: IIED.Google Scholar
  6. Argumedo, A., and B.Y.L. Wong. 2010. The ayllu system of the Potato Park (Peru). Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes 52: 84.Google Scholar
  7. Aroni, G. 2008. Recupercaión de suelos para una producción sostenible de quinua en el Altiplano sur. Revista Habitat 75: 50–53.Google Scholar
  8. Association of Communities of Potato Park. 2012. Somos cinco, pero somos uno: principios andinos. http://www.parquedelapapa.org/esp/02somos_02.html. Accessed 20 Dec 2013.
  9. Ashoka. 2002. Ashoka: Innovators for the public. http://www.ashoka.org/fellow/laury-cullen. Accessed 8 Nov 2012.
  10. Ayaviri, G.S., N. Choque, and G. Panamá. 2003. La historia de nuestra organización: Asociación Nacional de Productores de Quinua: ANAPQUI. La Paz: ANAPQUI.Google Scholar
  11. Barr, J., A. Gough, and A. Russillo. 2009. Rapid assessment case study: The environmental information infrastructure of pulse production in Canada. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  12. Benford, R.D., and D.A. Snow. 2000. Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology 26: 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borras Jr, S.M. 2008. La Vía Campesina and its global campaign for agrarian reform. Journal of Agrarian Change 8: 258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brandt, J., and H. Vejre. 2004. Multifunctional landscapes-motives, concepts and perceptions. Multifunctional landscapes. In Multifunctional landscapes, vol. 1, ed. J. Brandt, and H. Vejre, 3–32., Theory, values and history Southampton: WIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brett, J.A. 2010. The political-economics of developing markets versus satisfying food needs. Food and Foodways 18: 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. CABOLQUI. 2009. Dinamica actual del rubro quinero en Bolivia. CPTS desarrollo agroindustrial quinua en el altiplano: CABOLQUI. La Paz, Bolivia: CABOLQUI.Google Scholar
  17. Cáceres, Z., A. Carimentrand, and J. Wilkinson. 2007. 11 Fair trade and quinoa from the southern Bolivian Altiplano. Fair trade: The challenges of transforming globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Catacutan, D. 2010. Scaling up landcare in the Philippines. Colne: Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Cossio, J. 2008. Agricultura de conservación con un enfoque de manejo sostenible en el Altiplano sur. Revista Habitat 7: 44–47.Google Scholar
  20. Cramb, R. 2006. The role of social capital in the promotion of conservation farming: the case of ‘landcare’in the Southern Philippines. Land Degradation and Development 17: 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cullen, L., K. Alger, and D.M. Rambaldi. 2005. Land reform and biodiversity conservation in Brazil in the 1990s: Conflict and the articulation of mutual interests. Conservation Biology 19: 747–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Curtis, A., and T. de Lacy. 1998. Landcare, stewardship and sustainable agriculture in Australia. Environmental Values 7: 59–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dano, M.N., E. Elago, D. Catacutan, and A. Mercado Jr. 2009. Landcare in the Philippines. In Landcare: Local action—Global progress, ed. D. Catacutan, C. Neely, M. Johnston, H. Proussard, and R. Youl, 64–78. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre.Google Scholar
  24. de Jonge, B. 2008. Between sharing and protecting: public research on genetic resources in the year of the potato. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 4: 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Rooij, S. 2006. Territorial cooperative networks: new social carriers for endogenous rural development. Moving worldviews, reshaping sciences, policies and practices for endogenous sustanaible development. COMPAS series on Worldviews and Sciencies 4: 237–253.Google Scholar
  26. de Schutter O. 2011. Agroecology and the right to food. In Report presented at the 16th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council [A/HRC/16/49]. New York: UN.Google Scholar
  27. Develtere, P., I. Pollet, and F. Wanyama. 2008. Cooperating out of poverty: The renaissance of the African cooperative movement. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  28. El Diario. 2012. Comercialización de la quinua real del altiplano sur de Bolivia. La Paz: El Diario.Google Scholar
  29. Espaldon, M.V., M.U. Tapia, J.D. Villanueva, and P. Jaranilla-Sanchez. 2006. Philippine landcare after nine years: A study on the impacts of agroforestry on communities, farming households and the local environment in Mindanao ICRAF Occasional Paper. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre.Google Scholar
  30. Estrada-Carmona, N., A.K. Hart, F.A.J. DeClerck, C.A. Harvey, and J.C. Milder. 2014. Integrated landscape management for agriculture, rural livelihoods, and ecosystem conservation: An assessment of experience from Latin America and the Caribbean. Landscape and Urban Planning 12: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Foweraker, J. 1995. Theorizing social movements. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  32. Fox, T.A., T.E. Barchyn, and C.H. Hugenholtz. 2012. Successes of soil conservation in the Canadian prairies highlighted by a historical decline in blowing dust. Environmental Research Letters 7: 014008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fry, G.L. 2001. Multifunctional landscapes—Towards transdisciplinary research. Landscape and Urban Planning 57(3): 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fujisaka, S., E. Jayso, and A. Dapusala. 1994. Trees, grasses, and weeds: Species choices in farmed-developed contour hedgerows. Agroforestry Systems 25: 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fulton, F., and B. Sonntag. 2010. History of early Western Canadian agriculture—Setting the stage for conservation. In Landscapes transformed: The history of conservation tillage and direct seeding, ed. C.W. Lindwall, and B. Sonntag. Saskatoon: Knowledge Impact in Society.Google Scholar
  36. Gliessman, S.R., E. Engles, and R. Krieger. 1998. Agroecology: Ecological processes in sustainable agriculture. AnnArbor: Ann Arbor Press.Google Scholar
  37. Government of Saskatchewan. 2014. Growing forward 2: Farm stewardship program. http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/GF2-FarmStewardship. Accessed 20 Dec 2014.
  38. Groot, J.C., W. Rossing, A. Jellema, D.J. Stobbelaar, H. Renting, and M.K. Van Ittersum. 2007. Exploring multi-scale trade-offs between nature conservation, agricultural profits and landscape quality—A methodology to support discussions on land-use perspectives. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 120: 58–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hellin, J., and S. Higman. 2005. Crop diversity and livelihood security in the Andes. Development in Practice 15: 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holt-Giménez, E. 2009. From food crisis to food sovereignty. Monthly Review 61: 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. IAASTD. 2009. International assessment of agricultural knowledge, science and technology for development (IAASTD): Synthesis report. Washington, DC: IAASTD.Google Scholar
  42. Ichikawa, K., and G. Toth. 2012. The satoyama landscape of Japan: The future of an indigenous agricultural system in an industrialized society. In Agroforestry—The future of global land use, ed. P.K.R. Nair, and D. Garrity, 341–358. Houten: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. IFOAM. 2012. The IFOAM norms for organic production and processing. Germany: IFOAM.Google Scholar
  44. Janzen, H.H. 2001. Soil science on the Canadian prairies—Peering into the future from a century ago. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 81: 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Joffre, R., and J. Acho. 2008. Quinua, descanso y tholares en el sur del Altiplano Boliviano. Revista Habitat 75: 38–41.Google Scholar
  46. Karriem, A., E. Michael, H. Gillian, K. Stefan, and L. Alex. 2012. Space, ecology, and politics in the praxis of the Brazilian Landless Movement. In Gramsci: Space, nature, politics, ed. M. Ekers, G. Hart, S. Kipter, and A. Loftus, 142–160. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kay, C. 1998. Latin America’s agrarian reform: Lights and shadows. Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives 2: 9–31.Google Scholar
  48. Koohafkan, P., and M.A. Altieri. 2011. Globally important agricultural heritage systems: A legacy for the future. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  49. Kothari, A. 2008. The 4C factor: Community conservation and climate change. Biodiversity 9: 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kremen, C., and A. Miles. 2012. Ecosystem services in biologically diversified versus conventional farming systems: Benefits, externalities, and trade-offs. Ecology and Society 17: 40.Google Scholar
  51. Campesina, La Vía. 2010. Sustainable peasant and family farm agriculture can feed the world. Harare: La Vía Campesina.Google Scholar
  52. Lafond, G., G. Clayton, D. Fowler, R. Jat, K. Sahrawat, and A. Kassam. 2014. Conservation agriculture on the Canadian prairies, 89–107. Conservation Agriculture: Global Prospects and Challenges.Google Scholar
  53. Lafond, G., B. McConkey, and M. Stumborg. 2009. Conservation tillage models for small-scale farming: Linking the Canadian experience to the small farms of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China. Soil and Tillage Research 104: 150–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Larson, A.M., D. Barry, and G.R. Dahal. 2010. Forests for people: Community rights and forest tenure reform. Oxford: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  55. Lasco, R., G. Villamor, F. Pulhin, D. Catacutan, and M. Bertomeu. 2008. From principles to numbers: Approaches in implementing payments for environmental services (PES) in the Philippines. In Smallholder tree growing for rural development and environmental services, ed. D. Snelder, and R. Lasco, 379–391. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liberman, M. 2008. El cultivo de la quinua orgánica en Oruro y Potosí. Revista Habitat 75: 18–21.Google Scholar
  57. LPFN. 2014. Integrated landscape management in Africa: A synthesis of evidence. Washington, DC: EcoAgriculture Partners on behalf of the Landscapes for People, Food and Nature (LPFN) Initiative.Google Scholar
  58. Martinelli, L.A., R. Naylor, P.M. Vitousek, and P. Moutinho. 2010. Agriculture in Brazil: Impacts, costs, and opportunities for a sustainable future. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2: 431–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Martinez-Torres, M.E., and P.M. Rosset. 2010. La Vía Campesina: The birth and evolution of a transnational social movement. The Journal of Peasant Studies 37: 149–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McClinton, B., and J. Polegi. 2010. Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association. In Landscapes transformed: The history of conservation tillage and direct seeding, ed. C.W. Lindwall, and B. Sonntag. Saskatoon: Knowledge Impact and Society.Google Scholar
  61. McMichael, P. 2006. Reframing development: Global peasant movements and the new agrarian question. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d’études du développement 27: 471–483.Google Scholar
  62. Mercado Jr, A.R., M. Patindol, and D.P. Garrity. 2001. The Landcare experience in the Philippines: Technical and institutional innovations for conservation farming. Development in Practice 11: 495–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Milder, J.C., A.K. Hart, P. Dobie, J. Minai, and C. Zaleski. 2014. Integrated landscape initiatives for African agriculture, development, and conservation: A region-wide assessment. World Development 54: 68–80. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.07.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mooney, P.H. 2004. Democratizing rural economy: Institutional friction, sustainable struggle and the cooperative movement. Rural Sociology 69: 76–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nelson, R., and R. Cramb. 1998. Economic incentives for farmers in the Philippine uplands to adopt hedgerow intercropping. Journal of Environmental Management 54: 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. NFW. 2012. Plaats en rol van de themagroepen binnen het Nationaal Landschap Noardlike Fryske Wâlden. http://www.noardlikefryskewalden.nl. Accessed 6 Dec 2014.
  67. Perfecto, I., J.H. Vandermeer, and A.L. Wright. 2009. Nature’s matrix: Linking agriculture, conservation and food sovereignty. Oxford: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  68. Pimbert, M.P. 2008. Towards food sovereignty: Reclaiming autonomous food systems. London: IIED.Google Scholar
  69. Pimbert, M.P., and A. Argumedo. 2008. Protecting farmers’ rights with indigenous biocultural heritage territories: The experience of the potato park. London: IIED.Google Scholar
  70. Pretty, J., A.D. Noble, D. Bossio, J. Dixon, R.E. Hine, F.W.T. Penning de Vries, and J.I.L. Morison. 2005. Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 1114–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pretty, J., C. Toulmin, and S. Williams. 2011. Sustainable intensification in African agriculture. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9: 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Primdahl, J., and L.S. Kristensen. 2011. The farmer as a landscape manager: Management roles and change patterns in a Danish region. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography 111(2): 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ramos Santalla, N. 2000. La quinua, el grano de oro de los Incas ANAPQUI, una experiencia de desarrollo y manejo sostenible. La Paz: AOPEB.Google Scholar
  74. Renting, H., and J.D. van der Ploeg. 2001. Reconnecting nature, farming and society: Environmental cooperatives in the Netherlands as institutional arrangements for creating coherence. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 3: 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reynolds, J.F., E. Huber-Sannwald, and J.E. Herrick. 2008. La sustentabilidad de la producción de la quinua en el altiplano sur de Bolivia: Aplicación del paradigma de desarrollo de zonas secas. Revista Habitat 75: 10–15.Google Scholar
  76. Rigby, D., and D. Cáceres. 2001. Organic farming and the sustainability of agricultural systems. Agricultural Systems 68: 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodrigues, E.R., L. Cullen Jr, T.P. Beltrame, A.V. Moscogliato, and I.C. da Silva. 2007. Avaliação econômica de sistemas agroflorestais implantados para recuperação de reserva legal no Pontal do Paranapanema, São Paulo. Revista Árvore 31: 941–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roling, N.G., and M.A.E. Wagemakers (eds.). 2000. Facilitating sustainable agriculture: Participatory learning and adaptive management in times of environmental uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Scherr, S.J., J.C. Milder, and L.E. Buck. 2012. Landscapes for people, food and nature: the vision, the evidence and next steps. Washington, DC: Landscapes for People, Food and Nature Initiative.Google Scholar
  80. Selman, P. 2009. Planning for landscape multifunctionality. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 5: 45–52.Google Scholar
  81. Snow, D.A. 2004. Framing processes, ideology, and discursive fields. The Blackwell companion to social movements. Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Snow, D.A., and R.D. Benford. 1992. Master frames and cycles of protest. Frontiers in social movement theory. New Haven: Yale University.Google Scholar
  83. Snow, D.A., S.A. Soule, and H. Kriesi. 2007. Mapping the terrain. The Blackwell companion to social movements. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  84. SSCA. 2012. Background information on the Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Association. http://www.ssca.ca/sscabio.html. Accessed 6 Dec 2014.
  85. Swiderska, K. 2009. Protecting traditional knowledge: A holistic approach based on customary laws and bio-cultural heritage. Conserving and valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity: Economic, institutional and social challenges. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  86. Tarrow, S. 1992. Mentalities, political cultures, and collective action frames. Frontiers in social movement theory. New Haven: Yale University.Google Scholar
  87. Tuma, E.H. 1965. Twenty-six centuries of agrarian reform: A comparative analysis. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  88. UNDESA. 2012. The millennium development goals report 2012. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.Google Scholar
  89. Valladares-Padua, C., S.M. Padua, and L. Cullen. 2002. Within and surrounding the Morro do Diabo State Park: Biological value, conflicts, mitigation and sustainable development alternatives. Environmental Science & Policy 5: 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. van Apeldoorn, D.F., K. Kok, M.P.W. Sonneveld, and T. Veldkamp. 2011. Panarchy rules: Rethinking resilience of agroecosystems, evidence from Dutch dairy-farming. Ecology and Society 16: 39.Google Scholar
  91. Van der Ploeg, J.D. 2009. The new peasantries: Struggles for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Ward, B., D. Smith, G. Shaw, D. Haak, and J. Fredette. 2010. Policy and program response to land management issues. In Landscapes transformed: The history of conservation tillage and direct seeding, ed. C.W. Lindwall, and B. Sonntag, 15–24. Saskatoon: Knowledge Impact and Society.Google Scholar
  93. Wezel, A., S. Bellon, T. Doré, C. Francis, D. Vallod, and C. David. 2011. Agroecology as a science, a movement and a practice. Sustainable Agriculture 2: 27–43.Google Scholar
  94. Winkel, T., H. Bertero, P. Bommel, J. Bourliaud, M. Chevarría Lazo, G. Cortes, and F. Léger. 2012. The sustainability of quinoa production in southern Bolivia: From misrepresentations to questionable solutions. Comments on Jacobsen (2011, J. Agron. Crop Sci. 197:390–399). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 198: 314–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wiskerke, J.S.C., B.B. Bock, M. Stuiver, and H. Renting. 2003. Environmental co-operatives as a new mode of rural governance. NJAS—Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 51: 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wittman, H. 2010. Agrarian reform and the environment: Fostering ecological citizenship in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d’études du développement 29: 281–298.Google Scholar
  97. Zhang, W.F., Z.X. Dou, P. He, X.T. Ju, D. Powlson, D. Chadwick, and F.S. Zhang. 2013. New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110: 8375–8380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail K. Hart
    • 1
    • 2
  • Philip McMichael
    • 3
  • Jeffrey C. Milder
    • 1
  • Sara J. Scherr
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural ResourcesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.EcoAgriculture PartnersWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Development SociologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations