Agriculture and Human Values

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 3–26 | Cite as

Commercializing chemical warfare: citrus, cyanide, and an endless war



Astonishing changes have occurred to agricultural production systems since WWII. As such, many people tend to date the origins of industrial chemical agricultural to the early 1940s. The origins of industrial chemical agriculture, however, both on and off the field, have a much longer history. Indeed, industrial agriculture’s much discussed chemical dependency—in particular its need for toxic chemicals—and the development of the industries that feed this fix, have a long and diverse past that extend well back into the nineteenth century. In this paper, through the narrative of a late nineteenth century creation story, I go in search of a crucial linchpin in that longer history. I argue that industrial pest control has been imbued with the practices, discourse, materials, and ethics of modern chemical warfare since its inception. Faced with pest-induced collapse, Los Angeles citrus growers and scientists of the USDA and UC Agricultural Extension chemically fixed the citrus pest problem by developing and utilizing the cyanide gas chamber. Cyanide fumigation quickly became the toxic cornerstone of the citrus industry, enabling its intensification and expansion as the pest infection became systemic. By the turn the century, furnished with an economic poison made cheap and weapons-grade due to changes in the world gold mining industry, growers transformed cyanide fumigation into a necessary agricultural input. In chemically overriding an agro-ecological contradiction of capitalist agriculture, growers, scientists, and government officials amalgamated industrially organized agriculture to accelerating and endless chemical warfare. These suddenly necessary agricultural practices signaled a state change in world-ecology and agroindustrial organization, thus, the discovery of effective industrial control for citrus pests was not only a pivotal moment in the history of Southern California but it was also an event that has had world-historical implications.


Citrus Chemical warfare Cyanide Chemicalization Southern California Chemical agriculture Gas chamber State-change 



Alternative oxidase


California Farmer


California State Agricultural Society


District Attorney


Daily Alta California


Potassium cyanide


Los Angeles


Los Angeles Times


Los Angeles Herald


New York Times


Pacific Rural Press


Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Company


Sacramento Daily Union


San Francisco Chronicle


Southern California Horticulturist


United States


United States Department of Agriculture


World War I


World War II



This project was funded in part by grants from the Martin Institute (Geraldine F. Martin, President) and the Chemical Heritage Foundation along with a graduate fellowship from the Bancroft Library. The author would like to thank the Sayre Lab group at UC Berkeley for their thoughts on an earlier draft and the reviewers for their comments.


  1. Abraham, G. 1940. Policeman’s tear gas used for fumigating the garden. New York Times, D10.Google Scholar
  2. Altieri, M.A. 1998. Ecological impacts of industrial agriculture and the possibilities for truly sustainable farming. Monthly Review 50: 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altman R. 2014. On what we bury. Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 21(1): 1–11.Google Scholar
  4. Alyokhin, A., D. Mota-Sanchez, M. Baker, W. Synder, S. Menasha, M. Whalon, and W. Moarsi. 2014. The Red Queen in the potato field: Integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control. Pest Management Science. doi: 10.1002/ps.3826.Google Scholar
  5. Annand, P.N. 1944. The war and the future of entomology. Journal of Economic Entomology 37(1): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anonymous. 1895. Fumigating equipment, workers and children in a citrus orchard, ca. 1892–1910. In California Historical Society Collection, 18601960 , CHS-1376. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous. 1900a. Orange orchards during midwinter in Redlands, ca. 1900. In California Historical Society Collection, 18601960 , CHS-43108. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous. 1900b. Men and women working inside of an orange packing house, probably Covina, CA, ca.1900. In California Historical Society Collection, 18601960 , CHS-1348. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous. 1900c. View of cyanide tanks at a mining operation in the Mojave desert. ca. 1900. In California Historical Society Collection, 18601960 , CHS-5101. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  10. Anonymous. 1929. History of American chemical industries: Roessler and Hasslacher—Partners. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 21 (10):989–991.Google Scholar
  11. AP. 2014. USDA boosts corn, soybean harvest to new records. Associated Press, 12 September. Accessed September 12, 2014.
  12. Ball, P. 2001. Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Barnosky, A.D., E.A. Hadly, J. Bascompte, E.L. Berlow, J.H. Brown, M. Fortelius, W. Getz, J. Harte, A. Hastings, and P. Marquet. 2012. Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere. Nature 486(7401): 52–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrows, H.D. 1902. William Wolfskill, the pioneer. Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California and of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County 5(3): 287–294.Google Scholar
  15. Beisner, B.E., D.T. Haydon, and K. Cuddington. 2003. Alternative stable states in ecology. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(7): 376–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bennet, J.E. 1896. Black scale pest. Lively enemy of the California horticulturist. Los Angeles Times, March, 1.Google Scholar
  17. Benton, T. 1989. Marxism and natural limits: An ecological critique and reconstruction. New Left Review 178: 51–86.Google Scholar
  18. Borin, J. 1978. The crime and punishment of I.G. Farben. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bosqui, F.L. 1904. Practical notes on the cyanide process. New York: Engineering and Mining Journal.Google Scholar
  20. Boyce, A.M. 1928. Studies on the resistance of certain insects to hydrocyanic acid. Journal of Economic Entomology 21(5): 715–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bradman, A., B. Eskenazi, D. Barr, R. Bravo, R. Castorina, J. Chevrier, K. Kogut, M. Harnly, and T. McKone. 2005. Organophosphate urinary metabolite levels during pregnancy and after delivery in women living in an agricultural community. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(12): 1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bradman, A., D. Whitaker, L. Quirós, R. Castorina, B. Henn, M. Nishioka, J. Morgan, D. Barr, M. Harnly, and J. Brisbin. 2007. Pesticides and their metabolites in the homes and urine of farmworker children living in the Salinas Valley, CA. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 17(4): 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Braun, F.W. 1915. The manufacture of sodium cyanide. School of Fumigation: Conducted by C. W. Woodworth, University of California, Pomona, CA.Google Scholar
  24. Bristol, S. 1878. The oleander and orange scale-bug. Southern California Horticulturist 1(12): 374–375.Google Scholar
  25. Brophy, L.P., W.D. Miles, and R.C. Cochrane. 2005. Chemical warfare: From laboratory to field. Honolulu, HI: University Press of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  26. Browne, C.A. 1922. Early references pertaining to chemical warfare. The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 14(7): 646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Byrne, M. 2011. Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on marine invertebrate life history stages: Vulnerabilities and potential for persistence in a changing ocean. In Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, ed. R. Gibson, R. Atkinson, J. Gordon, I. Smith and D. Hughes, 1–42. New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  28. Caltagirone, L., and R.L. Doutt. 1989. The history of the Vedalia beetle importation to California and its impact on the development of biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 34: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Carosso, V.P. 1976. The California wine industry, 1830–1895: A study of the formative years. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  30. Carr, J.C. 1889. The blessed bugs. The Pacific Rural Press, May 18.Google Scholar
  31. Carson, R. 1962. Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  32. Carson, R. 1998. Women’s national press club speech. In Lost Woods: The discovered writing of Rachel Carson, ed. L. Lear. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ceccatti, J.S. 2009. Natural selection in the field: Insecticide resistance, economic entomology, and the evolutionary synthesis, 1914–1951. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 99(1): 199–217.Google Scholar
  34. Cecil, P.F. 1986. Herbicidal warfare: The ranch hand project in Vietnam. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. CF (California Farmer). 1878. Orange Culture. California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences, September 5.Google Scholar
  36. Chapman, A.C. 1887. Letter to the editor. Pacific Rural Press, June 18, 539.Google Scholar
  37. Chapman, C.C. 1909. The purple scale in Fullerton. Claremont Pomological Club Proceedings, March 22, 4–5.Google Scholar
  38. Chen, M., E. Ha, T. Wen, Y. Su, G. Lien, C. Chen, P. Chen, and W. Hsieh. 2012. Perfluorinated compounds in umbilical cord blood and adverse birth outcomes. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Christianson, S. 2010. The last gasp: The rise and fall of the American gas chamber. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. CLA. 2014. About crop protection. CropLife America. Accessed April 20, 2014.
  41. Clennell, J.E. 1910. The cyanide handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.Google Scholar
  42. CC Pierce & Co. 1882. Drawing depicting William Wolfskill’s Pasadena orange and lemon grove and residence, between Alameda and San Pedro Streets, Los Angeles, ca. 1882. In California Historical Society Collection , CHS-7310. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digitial Archive.Google Scholar
  43. Cochrane, W., and M.E. Ryan. 1976. American farm policy: 1948–1973. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  44. Cochrane, W. 1959. Farm technology, foreign surplus disposal and domestic supply control. Journal of Farm Economics 41(5): 885–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cochrane, W. 1993. The development of American agriculture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  46. Cochrane, W. 2003. The curse of agricultural abundance: A sustainable solution. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  47. Coit, J.E. 1915. Citrus fruits: An account of the citrus industry with special reference to California requirement and practices and similar conditions. New York: The MacMillan Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Coleman, K. 2005. A history of chemical warfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Collotta, M., P. Bertazzi, and V. Bollati. 2013. Epigenetics and pesticides. Toxicology 307: 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cook, T. 1999. No place to run: The Canadian corps and gas warfare in the First World War. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  51. Cooper, E. 1905. Insects and insecticides. Pamphlet. Sacramento, CA: California State Commission of Horticulture.Google Scholar
  52. Coquilett, D.W. 1894. The patent on hydrocyanic acid gas process declared invalid. Insect Life VII 3: 257–258.Google Scholar
  53. Coquillet, D.W. 1886. Farm and range: Cotton cushiony scale, experiments with remedies for their destruction. Los Angeles Times, July 18.Google Scholar
  54. Coquillet, D.W. 1887. US Department of Agriculture Report for 1886. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  55. Coquillet, D.W. 1888a. Talks with citizens. Los Angeles Times, May 27.Google Scholar
  56. Coquillet, D.W. 1888b. Insect killing by fumigation. An essay read at the Santa Barbara convention of fruit growers. Pacific Rural Press, May 5.Google Scholar
  57. Coquillet, D.W. 1888c. Report on the gas treatment for scale insects. Agriculture Yearbook for 1887. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  58. Coquillet, D.W. 1890. Another foe of Icerya. The Pacific Rural Press, December 27.Google Scholar
  59. Coquillet, D.W. 1891. Entomological: Origin of the gas treatment for scale insect. Pacific Rural Press, September 5.Google Scholar
  60. Corcoran, J., M.J. Winter, and C. Tyler. 2010. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: A critical review of the evidence for health effects in fish. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 40(4): 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. CSAS. 1872. Table of statistics. Transactions of the California State Agricultural Society. Sacramento: California State Agricultural Society.Google Scholar
  62. Culver, J.P. 1887. Tree Cover and Fumigator. United States Patent Office. USA: Patent No. 367,134.Google Scholar
  63. Cushing, E.C. 1957. History of entomology in World War II. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, The Lord Baltimote Press.Google Scholar
  64. DAC. 1852. San Joaquin news: Sheep. Daily Alta California, June 15.Google Scholar
  65. DAC. 1854. Later from the south: Arrival of the southerner. Daily Alta California, September 5.Google Scholar
  66. DAC. 1858. Wolfskill of Los Angeles and his vineyard. Daily Alta California, December 20.Google Scholar
  67. DAC. 1863. California wine-growers association: Secretary’s report. Daily Alta California, June 25.Google Scholar
  68. DAC. 1866. Death of William Wolfskill. Daily Alta California, October 5.Google Scholar
  69. DAC. 1885. Agricultural notes. Daily Alta California, February 28.Google Scholar
  70. DAC. 1886. State notes. Daily Alta California, June 30, 1886.Google Scholar
  71. DAC. 1887. Horticulture. The fumigation of trees without the use of carbonate of soda. Daily Alta California, December 9.Google Scholar
  72. DAC. 1890. Chasing a beetle: Our foreign relations with the Icerya purchasi. An enthusiastic entomologist, surprising adventures of one of our state department diplomats in search of a bug. Daily Alta California, April 30.Google Scholar
  73. Daggett, F.S. 1902. Winter observations on the Colorado desert. The Condor 4(2): 37–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Daniel, P. 2005. Toxic drift: Pesticides and health in the Post-War South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.Google Scholar
  75. deOng, E. 1928. Specifications for petroleum oils to be used on plants. Journal of Economic Entomology 21(5): 697–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Dimmock, G. 1877. The Effect of a Few Common Gases on Arthropods. Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 2(35–36): 19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dittmar, M.E. 1899. Southern California. In California mines and minerals, ed. E.H. Benjamin, 395–405. San Francisco: California Miner’s Association.Google Scholar
  78. Dobbins, J.R. 1889. Extracts from correspondence: The spread of the Australian Lady-bird. Insect Life II: 112.Google Scholar
  79. Donato, D., O. Nichols, H. Possingham, M. Moore, P. Ricci, and B. Noller. 2007. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife. Environment International 33(7): 974–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Doutt, R.L. 1958. Vice, virtue, and vedalia. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 4(4): 119–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Dunbar, A.R. 1902. Western mining directory embracing the principal operating mines, stamp mills, smelters, dredges, cyanide and chlorination plant in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, British Columbia and Mexico. Denver, CO: Western Mining Directory Company.Google Scholar
  82. DuPont. 1930. Digest, R&H Chemical Company, subsidiaries and affiliates. In Absorbed Companies, edited by Records of E.I. du Pont de Nemours: Euleutherian Mills Historical Library, Hagley Museum.Google Scholar
  83. Economist. 1911. The world’s production of gold. The Economist, November 11.Google Scholar
  84. Elkington, J.S. 2003. Gypsy moth. In Encyclopedia of insects, ed. V. Resh, and R. Cardé, 493–497. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. Ellis, C. 1934. The chemistry of petroleum derivatives, vol. 1. New York: The Chemical Catalog Company Inc.Google Scholar
  86. Eskenazi, B., K. Huen, A. Marks, K.G. Harley, A. Bradman, D.B. Barr, and N. Holland. 2010. PON1 and neurodevelopment in children from the CHAMACOS study exposed to organophosphate pesticides in utero. Environmental Health Perspectives 118(12): 1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Essig, E.O. 1909. A general account of the purple scale (Lepidosaphes beckii). Claremont Pomological Club Proceedings, March 22, 5–10.Google Scholar
  88. Essig, E.O. 1931. A history of entomology. New York: Hafner Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  89. Evenson, R., and D. Gollin. 2003. Assessing the impact of the Green Revolution, 1960 to 2000. Science 300(5620): 758–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Everitt, E.P. 1880. Orange grove, showing Southern Pacific passenger train moving in the background, ca. 1880. In California Historical Society Collection, 18601960 , CHS-43696. Los Angeles, CA: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  91. Folke, C., S. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, and C. S. Holling. 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 557–581.Google Scholar
  92. Foster, J.B., B. Clark, and R. York. 2011. The ecological rift: Capitalism’s war on the Earth. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  93. Fradkin, E.K. 1929. Chemical warfare—Its possibilities and probabilities. International Conciliation 248: 7–191.Google Scholar
  94. Friedlander, H. 1995. The origins of Nazi genocide: From euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  95. Friedrich, M. 2013. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Journal of the American Medical Association 309(15): 1578.Google Scholar
  96. Fries, A.A. 1921. Chemical warfare. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.Google Scholar
  97. Fries, A.A. 1928. By-products of chemical warfare. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, October 1079–1084.Google Scholar
  98. Fu, P., and K. Kawamura. 2010. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere. Environmental Pollution 158(10): 3138–3143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Goodman, D., B. Sorj, and J. Wilkinson. 1987. From farming to biotechnology: A theory of agro-industrial development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  100. Gould, S., and E.S. Vrba. 1982. Exaptation: A missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8(1): 4–15.Google Scholar
  101. Grandjean, P., and P.J. Landrigan. 2014. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. The Lancet Neurology 13(3): 330–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gray, G.P., and E.R. deOng. 1926. California petroleum insecticides. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18(2): 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gray, G.P. 1914. The workings of the California insecticide law. The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 6(7): 590–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gray, G.P. 1918a. Economic toxicology. Science 48(12): 329–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gray, G.P. 1918b. The consumption and cost of economic poisons in California in 1916. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 10(4): 301–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gray, G.P., and A. Kirkpatrick. 1929. The resistance of black scale (Saissetia Oleae Bern.) to hydrocyanic acid fumigation. Journal of Economic Entomology 22(6): 893–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Guillette Jr, L., and T. Iguchi. 2012. Life in a contaminated world. Science 337(6102): 1614–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Guinn, J.M. 1912. From cattle ranch to orange grove. Annual Publication of the Historical Society of Southern California 8(3): 145–157.Google Scholar
  109. Guthman, J. 2011. Weighing in: Obesity, food justice, and the limits of capitalism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  110. Haila, Y., and R. Levins. 1992. Humanity and nature: Ecology, science, and society. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  111. Haldane, J.B.S. 1925. Callinicus: A defense of chemical warfare. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.Google Scholar
  112. Hamblin, J. 2013. Arming mother nature: The birth of catastrophic environmentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  113. Hansen and Solano Co. 1888. Moulton Crystal Springs property of J.W. Wolfskill on the east side of the Los Angeles River. In Maps, #313637. San Marino, CA: Huntington Digital Library.Google Scholar
  114. Harborne, J.B. 1993. Introduction to ecological biochemistry. New York: Academic Press Limited.Google Scholar
  115. Harris, R., and J. Paxman. 2002. A higher form of killing: The secret history of chemical and biological warfare. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  116. Henderson, G. 1999. California and the fictions of capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Henry, W.A. 1889. Pacific coast work of the division of entomology. Insect Life II 5: 141–144.Google Scholar
  118. Hilgard, E. 1895. Science in the orchard. Riverside Daily Press, April 16.Google Scholar
  119. Hobart, F. 1898. Our mineral wealth. The progress of American mining—Its great extent and Promising Outlook. New York Times, Feb 21.Google Scholar
  120. Hobbs, R.J., S. Arico, J. Aronson, J.S. Baron, P. Bridgewater, V.A. Cramer, P.R. Epstein, J.J. Ewel, C.A. Klink, and A.E. Lugo. 2006. Novel ecosystems: Theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15(1): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hoefer, F. 1842. A history of chemistry. Paris.Google Scholar
  122. Holt, L. 1877. Orange tree diseases. Southern California Horticulturist 1(2): 61–62.Google Scholar
  123. Holt, L.M. 1880. The red scale on citrus trees. Pacific Rural Press, January 31.Google Scholar
  124. Holt, L.M. 1888. The future of citrus culture in california. Sacramento, CA: California State Board of Horticulture Report for 1888.Google Scholar
  125. Horton, J.R. 1918. Control of the Argentine Ant in orange groves. Vol. 928, Farmer’s Bulletin. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  126. Howard, L.O. 1894. An important enemy to fruit trees. The San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus pernidosus): Its appearance in the Eastern United States; Measures to be taken to prevent its spread and destroy it. Circular, Second Series. Washington, DC: USDA Division of Entomology.Google Scholar
  127. Howard, L.O. 1899. Progress in economic entomology in the United States. Yearbook of Department of Agriculture for 1899. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  128. Howard, L.O. 1922. War against insects. Nature 109(2725): 79–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Howard, L.O., and C.L. Marlatt. 1896. The San José scale: Its occurrence in the United States with a full account of its life history and the remedies to be used against it. Bulletin, New Series. Washington, DC: USDA Division of Entomology.Google Scholar
  130. Igler, D. 2000. The industrial far west: Region and nation in the late nineteenth century. The Pacific Historical Review 69(2): 159–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Igler, D. 2001. Industrial cowboys: Miller & Lux and the transformation of the Far West, 1850–1920. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  132. Jansen, M., A. Coors, R. Stoks, and L. Meester. 2011. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of pesticide resistance: A case study in daphnia. Ecotoxicology 20(3): 543–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Jeffreys, D. 2008. Hell’s cartels. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  134. Jeffreys, J.W. 1900. The land: Orchard, farm, garden, rancho and stockyard. Los Angeles Times, August 17.Google Scholar
  135. Jenkins, D. 2002. The final frontier: America, science, and terror. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  136. Johnson, W.G. 1902. Fumigation methods: A practical treatise for farmers, fruit growers, nurserymen, gardeners, florists, millers, grain dealers, transportation companies, colleges and experiment station workers, etc. New York: Orange Judd Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kavka, G.S. 1983. Hobbes’s war of all against all. Ethics 93(2): 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kercheval, A.F. 1885. What shall we do about the scale? Los Angeles Times, March 22.Google Scholar
  139. Kercheval, A.F. 1886. Shall the white scale go, or shall we? Los Angeles Times, July 11.Google Scholar
  140. Kercheval, A.F. 1888. Letters to the times: Are the bugs sick? Los Angeles Times, October 4.Google Scholar
  141. Khan, S., R. Mulvaney, T. Ellsworth, and W. Boast. 2007. The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality 36(6): 1821–1832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kirksey, S.E, and S, Helmreich. 2010. The emergence of multispecies ethnography. Cultural Anthropology 25(4): 545–576.Google Scholar
  143. Knox, G.C. 1886. Map of the Wolfskill orchard. In Maps: Huntington Digital Library.Google Scholar
  144. Koebele, A. 1887. US Department of Agriculture Report for 1886. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  145. Koebele, A. 1890. Report of a trip to Australia made under direction of the entomologist to investigate the natural enemies of the fluted scale. Division of Entomology Bulletin 21. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  146. Kokatnur, V. 1948. Chemical warfare in ancient India. Journal of Chemical Education 25(5): 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. LAH. 1874. Railroad meeting. Los Angeles Herald, December 20.Google Scholar
  148. LAH. 1878. Growing interest—The money in raising oranges. Los Angeles Herald, August 25.Google Scholar
  149. LAH. 1882. History of the orange in Los Angeles. Los Angeles Herald, April 5.Google Scholar
  150. LAH. 1886. The white scale: Some terribly infested orange groves. Where are the inspectors? Los Angeles Herald, June 12.Google Scholar
  151. LAH. 1891. Patent twilight: The orange tree fumigator patent to be bought. Los Angeles Herald, May 30.Google Scholar
  152. Lanier-Graham, S. 1993. The ecology of war: Environmental impacts of weaponry and warfare. New York: Walker.Google Scholar
  153. LAT. 1889. Horticultural commission: What the Australian bugs doing for Southern California. Los Angeles Times, September 8.Google Scholar
  154. LAT. 1892. The bug phalanx: The horticultural enemy moving close column by division. Los Angeles Times, August 13.Google Scholar
  155. LAT. 1893. The night process. The gas treatment in the courts. Los Angeles Times, October 20.Google Scholar
  156. LAT. 1894. The patent on the gas treatment declared void. Pacific Rural Press, April 28.Google Scholar
  157. LAT. 1896a. Arizona news—Deadly cyanide of potassium. Los Angeles Times.Google Scholar
  158. LAT. 1896b. Covina. Los Angeles Times, August 9.Google Scholar
  159. LAT. 1896c. Covina. Los Angeles Times, August 23.Google Scholar
  160. LAT. 1899. San Bernardino county. Los Angeles Times, January 1.Google Scholar
  161. LAT. 1900a. The land: Orchard, farm, garden, rancho, and stockyard. Los Angeles Times, October 5.Google Scholar
  162. LAT. 1900b. Industrial mining & citrus exhibit. Los Angeles Times, March 3, I.Google Scholar
  163. LAT. 1902. Hunting for enemies of the red scale: Mischievous foe of oranges is hard to combat. Los Angeles Times, November 23.Google Scholar
  164. LAT. 1906. Purple scale disappearing: Speaker at farmers’ institute meeting gives encouraging address on tree fumigation. Los Angeles Times, September 20.Google Scholar
  165. LAT. 1912. After the scale pest: Black and purple varieties especially guarded against by county horticulturist. Los Angeles Times, July 26, II.Google Scholar
  166. LAT. 1916. Millions cost of pest war: Citrus growers prepare for fumigation season. Los Angeles Times, August 20.Google Scholar
  167. Lelong, B.M. 1890. Improved fumigating apparatus. Annual Report: State Board of Horticulture of the State of California.Google Scholar
  168. Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in changing environments. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Levins, R., and L. Lewontin. 1985. The dialectical biologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  170. Lewontin, R., and R. Levins. 2007. Biology under the influence: Dialectical essays on ecology, agriculture, and health. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  171. Liebig, J. 1859. Familiar letters on chemistry, in its relations to physiology, dietetics, agriculture, commerce, and political economy. London: Walton & Maberly.Google Scholar
  172. Lough, J.W. 2007. Weber and the persistence of religion: Social theory, capitalism and the sublime. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  173. Loughheed, A.L. 2001. The anatomy of an international cyanide cartel: 1897–1927. Prometheus 19(1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Lounsbury, C.P. 1902. Fumigation under box covers. Cape Town: Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  175. MacArthur, J.S. 1905. Gold extraction by cyanide: A retrospective. Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry XXIV(7): 311–315.Google Scholar
  176. Magdoff, F., J.B. Foster, and F.H. Buttel. 2000. Hungry for profit: The agribusiness threat to farmers, food, and the environment. New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  177. Malaj, E., C. Peter, M. Grote, R. Kühne, C.P. Mondy, P. Usseglio-Polatera, W. Brack, and R.B. Schäfer. 2014. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(26): 9549–9554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Mascarelli, A. 2013. Growing up with pesticides. Science 341(6147): 740–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Mayor, A. 2008. Greek Fire, poison arrows, and scorpion bombs: Biological and chemical warfare in the ancient world. Penguin.Google Scholar
  180. McNeill, J.R., and C.R. Unger (eds.). 2013. Environmental histories of the Cold War. Washington, DC: German Historical Institute and Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  181. McWilliams, C. 1935. Factories in the field. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  182. McWilliams, C. 1946. Southern California: An island on the land. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith.Google Scholar
  183. McWilliams, J. 2008. American pests: Losing the war on insects from colonial times to DDT. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  184. Mitchell, T. 2002. Rule of experts: Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  185. Monosson, E. 2015. Unnatural selection: How we are changing life, gene by gene. Washington, DC: Island Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Moore, J.W. 2003. Capitalism as world-ecology Braudel and Marx on environmental history. Organization & Environment 16(4): 514–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Moore, J.W. 2010. The end of the road? Agricultural revolutions in the capitalist World-Ecology, 1450–2010. Journal of Agrarian Change 10(3): 389–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Moore, J.W. 2011a. Transcending the metabolic rift: A theory of crises in the capitalist world-ecology. The Journal of Peasant Studies 38(1): 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Moore, J.W. 2011b. Ecology, capital, and the nature of our times: Accumulation and crisis in the capitalist world-ecology. Journal of World-Systems Research 17(1): 108–147.Google Scholar
  190. Morse, F.W. 1887a. The uses of gases against scale insects. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 71.Google Scholar
  191. Morse, F.W. 1887b. Use of Hydrocyanic Acid Against Scale Insects. California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 73.Google Scholar
  192. Morse, F.W. 1887c. The use of gases against scale insects. Pacific Rural Press, June 18.Google Scholar
  193. Morse, F.W. 1887d. Doses of acids of different strengths. Pacific Rural Press, September 3.Google Scholar
  194. Morse, F.W. 1887e. Scale insects. The use of hydrocyanic acid to exterminate them. Sacramento Daily Union, September 3, 7.Google Scholar
  195. Morse, F.W. 1891. Entomological: comments by Mr. Morse. Pacific Rural Press, September 5.Google Scholar
  196. Moses, H.V. 1995. The orange-grower is not a farmer: G. Harold Powell, Riverside orchardists, and the coming of industrial agriculture, 1893–1930. California History 74(1): 22–37.Google Scholar
  197. Mudder, T., and M. Botz. 2004. Cyanide and society: A critical review. European Journal of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection 4(1): 62–74.Google Scholar
  198. Mullen, R.A. 1933. Why poison bugs, foes or surpluses? The Washington Post, June 25.Google Scholar
  199. Mulvaney, R.L., S.A. Khan, and T.R. Ellsworth. 2009. Synthetic nitrogen fertilizers deplete soil nitrogen: A global dilemma for sustainable cereal production. Journal of Environmental Quality 38(6): 2295–2314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Munroe, C. E. 1905. Precious metals recovered by cyanide processes. Special Reports: Mines and Quarries 1902: US Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census.Google Scholar
  201. Murphy, M. 2008. Chemical regimes of living. Environmental History 13(4): 695–703.Google Scholar
  202. Naylor, R.L., and P.R. Ehrlich. 1997. Natural pest control services and agriculture. In Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems, ed. G. Daily, 151–174. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  203. Nik-Zainal, S., P. Van Loo, D.C. Wedge, L.B. Alexandrov, C.D. Greenman, K.W. Lau, K. Raine, D. Jones, J. Marshall, and M. Ramakrishna. 2012. The life history of 21 breast cancers. Cell 149(5): 994–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. NYT. 1896. The gold output. New York Times, March 9.Google Scholar
  205. OAD (Oxford American Dictionary). 2011. Toxic. In New Oxford American Dictionary, ed A. Stevenson and A. Lindberg. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  206. Odling-Smee, F.J., K.N. Laland, and M.W. Feldman. 2003. Niche construction: The neglected process in evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  207. Packard, G.A. 1897. The cyanide process in the United States. Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers XXVI: 709–721.Google Scholar
  208. Peck, S.L. 2010. Death and the ecological crisis. Agriculture and Human Values 27: 105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Perfecto, I., J.H. Vandermeer, and A.L. Wright. 2009. Nature’s matrix: Linking agriculture, conservation and food sovereignty. London, UK: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  210. Perkins, J.H. 1978. Reshaping technology in wartime: The effect of military goals on entomological research and insect-control practices. Technology and Culture 19(2): 169–186.Google Scholar
  211. Perkins, J.H. 1982. Insects, experts and the insecticide crisis. Berlin: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Perkins, J.H. 1983. Insects, food, and hunger: The paradox of plenty for US entomology, 1920–1970. Environmental History Review 7(1): 71–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Plucknett, D.L., and N.J. Smith. 1986. Sustaining agricultural yields. BioScience 36(1): 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Pollan, M. 2006. The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  215. Poulton, J.E. 1990. Cyanogenesis in plants. Plant Physiology 94(2): 401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Powell, G.H. 1905. Causes of fruit decay. Riverside Daily Press, April 7.Google Scholar
  217. Powell, G.H. 1908. The decay of oranges while in transit from California. Bulletin. Washington DC: USDA Bureau of Plant Industry.Google Scholar
  218. Preston, E.B. 1895. California gold mill practices. Bulletin No. 6. Sacramento: California State Mining Bureau.Google Scholar
  219. PRP. 1872. Agricultural notes: California—Los Angeles. Pacific Rural Press, April 6.Google Scholar
  220. PRP. 1877a. Horticulture: Los Angeles fruit growers association. Pacific Rural Press, May 19.Google Scholar
  221. PRP. 1877b. Agricultural notes: California—Los Angeles. Pacific Rural Press, March 3.Google Scholar
  222. PRP. 1883. Entomological: citrus scale and their foes. Pacific Rural Press, March 10.Google Scholar
  223. PRP. 1887. The Gas treatment for scales. Pacific Rural Press, July 30.Google Scholar
  224. PRP. 1888a. Killing animals humanely. Pacific Rural Press, April 7.Google Scholar
  225. PRP. 1888b. Entomological: more foes of Icerya. Pacific Rural Press, December 29.Google Scholar
  226. PRP. 1898. A county fumigation outfit. Pacific Rural Press, September 17.Google Scholar
  227. Pugsley, C. 1897. Gas treatment for scale insects: Treating of the operations of the Horticultural’s Board fumigating outfit, the applicability of the fumigation process in Cape Colony, and embodying a full description of the equipment necessary for fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas. Cape Town: Horticultural Board of the Cape Colony.Google Scholar
  228. Quayle, H.J. 1910. Correspondence Between H. J. Quayle and the University of California Agricultural Departments as well as horticultural and entomological agencies throughout the World 1908–1914. In Henry J. Quayle Papers: UC Riverside Special Collections.Google Scholar
  229. Rasmussen, N. 2001. Plant hormones in war and peace: Science, industry, and government in the development of herbicides in 1940s America. Isis 92(2): 291–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Reuther, W., E.C. Calavan, and G.E. Carman (eds.). 1989. The Citrus Industry, vol. V. Oakland, CA: UC Agriculture and Natural Resources.Google Scholar
  231. Rich, G. 1878. The ravages of the scale bug. Southern California Horticulturist 2(1): 30.Google Scholar
  232. Riley, C.V. 1889. Importation of Icerya enemies from Australia. Pacific Rural Press, December 21.Google Scholar
  233. Robine, R., M. Lenglen, J.A. Le Clerc, and C.E. Munroe. 1906. The cyanide industry: theoretically and practically considered. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  234. Romero, A. 2016. From oil well to farm: Industrial waste, shell oil, and the petrochemical turn. Agricultural History 90(1) (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  235. Russell, E. 2001. War and nature: Fighting humans and insects with chemicals from World War I to Silent Spring. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  236. Sackman, D.C. 2005. Orange empire: California and the fruits of Eden. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  237. Sanders, B. 2009. The Green Zone: The environmental costs of Militarism. Oakland, CA: AK Press.Google Scholar
  238. Sawyer, R.C. 1996. To make a spotless orange: Biological control in California. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.Google Scholar
  239. SCH. 1879. The red scale. Southern California Horticulturist II 9: 280.Google Scholar
  240. Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413(6856): 591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Scheidel, E.M. 1894. The cyanide process: Its practical application and economical results. In California State Mining Bureau Bulletin, ed. J.J. Crawford. San Francisco, CA: CSMB.Google Scholar
  242. Schainberg, A. 1980. The environment: From surplus to scarcity. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  243. Schmidt Lithographic Co. 1915. Orange crate label: Over there brand. In Collection of Lithographic and Social History, #323891, ed. Jay T. Last. San Marino, CA: Huntington Digital Library.Google Scholar
  244. SDU. 1851. Advertisement: Grape cuttings. Sacramento Daily Union, April 9.Google Scholar
  245. SDU. 1874. Pacific Coast items. Sacramento Daily Union, March 18.Google Scholar
  246. SDU. 1880. Practical agriculture: Orange culture in California. Sacramento Daily Union, January 3.Google Scholar
  247. Selman, C., J.D. Blount, D.H. Nussey, and J.R. Speakman. 2012. Oxidative damage, ageing, and life-history evolution: Where now? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27(10): 570–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. SFC. 1895. California mines. San Francisco Chronicle, July, 28.Google Scholar
  249. SFC. 1902. Will study fumigation: Berkeley man will spend a month experimenting in the south. San Francisco Chronicle, August 18.Google Scholar
  250. SFC. 1903. Issues bulletin on fumigation: Professor Woodworth settles several important questions for the orchardists. San Francisco Chronicle, July 24.Google Scholar
  251. Shinn, C.H. 1893. The fruit industry of California. Popular Science Monthly 44: 200–217.Google Scholar
  252. Siedow, J.N., and D.A. Berthold. 1986. The alternative oxidase: A cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in higher plants. Physiologia Plantarum 66(3): 569–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Singer, M. 2011. Down cancer alley: The lived experience of health and environmental suffering in Louisiana’s chemical corridor. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 25(2): 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Slavin, P. 2014. Warfare and ecological destruction in early fourteenth-century British Isles. Environmental History 19: 528–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Smart, J.K. 1997. History of chemical and biological warfare: An American perspective. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, 9–86. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General.Google Scholar
  256. Solano, A. 1871. Land of L. Wolfskill in the Rancho Santa Anita. In Maps: Huntington Digital Library.Google Scholar
  257. Solomos, T. 1977. Cyanide-resistant respiration in higher plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 28(1): 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Spalding, W.A. 1885. The orange, its culture in California. Riverside: Press and Horticulturist Steam Print.Google Scholar
  259. Spalding, W.A. 1922a. Early chapters in the history of California citrus culture. California Citrograph 7(4): 94–95.Google Scholar
  260. Spalding, W.A. 1922b. Early chapters in the history of California citrus culture. California Citrograph 7(4): 122–124.Google Scholar
  261. Spalding, W.A. 1922c. Early chapters in the history of California citrus culture. California Citrograph 7(5): 150–151.Google Scholar
  262. Stearns, S.C. 1976. Life-history tactics: A review of the ideas. Quarterly Review of Biology 51(1): 3–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Stearns, S.C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  264. Stoll, S. 1998. The fruits of natural advantage: Making the industrial countryside in California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  265. Street, R.S. 2004. Beasts of the field: A narrative history of California farmworkers, 1769–1913. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  266. Taber, I.W. 1885. Wolfskill Orange Grove. In Riverside and Los Angeles Area Views, circa 18801889, BANC PIC 1905.06211:18. Berkeley, CA: Bancroft Library.Google Scholar
  267. Thucydides. 1910. History of the Peloponnesian War. Translated by R Crawley. New York: E. P. Dutton.Google Scholar
  268. Tucker, J.B. 2006. War of nerves: Chemical warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  269. Tyrrell, I.R. 1999. True gardens of the gods: Californian–Australian environmental reform, 1860-1930. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  270. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2013. DOW AgroSciences petitions (09-233-01p, 09-349-01p, and 11-234-01p) for determinations of nonregulated status for 2,4-D Resistant Corn and Soybean Varieties. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Washington, DC: USDA APHIS.Google Scholar
  271. Van Der Ploeg, J. 2010. The food crisis, industrialized farming and the imperial regime. Journal of Agrarian Change 10(1): 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Vandenberg, L.N., T. Colborn, T. Hayes, J. Heindel, D.R. Jacobs Jr, D. Lee, T. Shioda, A. Soto, F. Saal, and W. Welshons. 2012. Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Low-dose effects and nonmonotonic Dose Responses. Endocrine Reviews 33(3): 378–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Vanlerberghe, G.C., and L. McIntosh. 1997. Alternative oxidase: From gene to function. Annual Review of Plant Biology 48(1): 703–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Vickery, R.K. 1920. Petroleum insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 13(6): 444–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Von Clausewitz, C. 1832 (1909). On War. Translated by J. J. Graham. Vol. 1. London.Google Scholar
  276. Walker, H.W., and J.E. Mills. 1926. Progress report of work of the Chemical Warfare Service on the Boll Weevil-Anthonomus Grandis. Journal of Economic Entomology 19(4): 600–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Walker, H.W., and J.E. Mills. 1927. Chemical Warfare Service Boll Weevil investigation. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 19(6): 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Walker, R. 2001. California’s golden road to riches: Natural resources and regional capitalism, 1848–1940. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91(1): 167–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Walker, R. 2004. The conquest of bread: 150 years of agribusiness in California. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  280. Wall, W.B., M.S. Jones, and A.D. Bishop. 1891. Process of fumigating trees and other plants. United States Patent Office. USA. Patent #445,342.Google Scholar
  281. Wallace, R. 1896. Farming industries of the Cape Colony. Johannesburg: J. C. Juta and Co.Google Scholar
  282. Wallace, H.A. 1933. Extension service review. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  283. Way, J. 1984. Cyanide intoxication and its mechanism of antagonism. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 24(1): 451–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Webber, H.J., and L.D. Batchelor. 1943. The citrus industry. Vol. I. History, botany and breeding. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  285. Weis, T. 2010. The accelerating biophysical contradictions of industrial capitalist agriculture. Journal of Agrarian Change 10(3): 315–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Whorton, J.C. 1974. Before Silent Spring: Pesticides and public health in Pre-DDT America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  287. Williamson, H.F., R.L. Andreano, A.R. Daum, and G.C. Klose. 1963. The American petroleum industry: The age of energy 1899–1959. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  288. Wilson, B.D., F. Temple, J. Shorb, N. Jones, P. Banning, L. Wolfksill, and L.J. Rose. 1874. Warehouse and shipping association: Articles of association. Los Angeles Herald, January 7.Google Scholar
  289. Wilson, I.A. 1957. Early Southern California viniculture 1830–1865. The Historical Society of Southern California Quarterly 39(3): 242–250.Google Scholar
  290. Wilson, I. 1965. William Wolfskill: 1798–1866: Frontier trapper to California ranchero. Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark Company.Google Scholar
  291. Winters, S.R. 1922. Poison-gas chambers disinfect freight. Popular Mechanics (April):595–596.Google Scholar
  292. Woglum, R.S. 1923. The history of hydrocyanic and gas fumigation as an index to progress in economic entomology. Journal of Economic Entomology 16(6): 518–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Woglum, R.S. 1925. Observations on insects developing immunity to insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology 18(4): 593–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Wolf, M. 1985. It all began in frankfurt: Landmarks in the history of Degussa AG. Frankfurt am Maim: Degussa AG.Google Scholar
  295. Wolfskill, J. 1866. William Wolkskill, the pioneer. Daily Alta California, October 12.Google Scholar
  296. Wolkskill, W. 1836. Petition for Guillermo Wolfskill for grant of agricultural parcel. In Los Angeles City Archives, 18361872: USC Digital Archive.Google Scholar
  297. Woodworth, C.W. 1912. The insecticide industries in California. Journal of Economic Entomology 5(4): 358–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Woodworth, C.W. 1899. Orchard fumigation. In Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 122. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  299. Woodworth, C.W., and M.B. Messenger. 1915. Introductory lecture: School of fumigation. School of Fumigation: Conducted by C. W. Woodworth, University of California, Pomona, CA.Google Scholar
  300. Wynn, M.R. 1963. Desert Bonanza: The story of early Randsburg, Mojave desert mining camp. Glendale, CA: The Arthur H. Clark Company.Google Scholar
  301. YAM. 1900. Financial Records 2297–2299. In Mining and Milling Company Records, ed. Yellow Aster, 1898–1918. Sacramento, CA: California State Library.Google Scholar
  302. Young, T.G., and W. Smith. 1891. The cyanide process for the extraction of gold from low-grade gold ores. Journal of the Society of the Chemical Industry 10: 93–98.Google Scholar
  303. Zagrobelny, M., S. Bak, A. Rasmussen, B. Jørgensen, C. Naumann, and B. Møller. 2004. Cyanogenic glucosides and plant–insect interactions.”. Phytochemistry 65(3): 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations