She works hard for the money: women in Kansas agriculture
- 399 Downloads
Since 1997 there has been a significant increase in the number and percentage of Kansas farmers who are women. Using Reskin and Roos’ (Job queues, gender queues: explaining women’s inroads into male occupations, Temple University Press, Philidelphia, 1990) model of “job queues and gender queues” I analyze changes in the agricultural industry in Kansas that resulted in more women becoming “principal farm operators” in the state. I find there are three changes largely responsible for women increasing their representation in the occupation: an increase in the demand for niche products, a decrease in the average farm size, and greater societal acceptance of women as farmers. This study adds to the growing literature on women principal farm operators in developed countries, and is among the first to explore why women are becoming a larger percentage of the occupation in the United States.
KeywordsWomen and agriculture Female farmers Kansas agriculture Occupational segregation by sex
The author thanks John Walker, Michael Seeborg, Cal Melick, participants of the Missouri Valley Economics Association annual meeting, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. Funding for an academic sabbatical from Washburn University is also gratefully acknowledged.
- Anker, R. 1998. Gender and jobs: Sex segregation of occupations in the world. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
- Anker, R. 1997. Theories of occupational segregation by sex: An overview. International Labour Review 136(3): 315–339.Google Scholar
- Aratani, L. 2009. Female farmers sprouting: More MD, VA women lead farms. The Washington Post, June 28. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/27/AR2009062702386.html. Accessed 5 Sept 2011.
- Blau, F., and M. Ferber. 1992. Women’s work, women’s lives: A comparative perspective. In Women’s work and women’s lives: The continuing struggle worldwide, ed. H. Kahne, and J.Z. Giele, 28–44. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Brandth, B., and M.S. Haugen. 2007. Gendered work in family farm tourism. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 38(3): 379–393.Google Scholar
- Bryman, A. 2012. Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2012. Labor force statistics from the Current Population Survey. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat15.htm. Accessed 12 June 2013.
- Corcoran, M.E., and P.N. Courant. 1985. Sex role socialization and labor market outcomes. American Economic Review 75(2): 275–278.Google Scholar
- Dwyer, S., O. Richard, and D.C. Shepherd. 1998. An exploratory study of gender and age matching in the salesperson-prospective customer dyad: Testing similarity-performance predictions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 18(4): 55–69.Google Scholar
- Hazell, P. 2013. Comparative study of trends in urbanization and changes in farm size in Africa and Asia: Implications for agricultural research. Independent Science and Partnership Council, CGIAR. http://www.sciencecouncil.cgiar.org/fileadmin/templates/ispc/documents/Strategy_and_Trends/2013/Foresight.Hazell.pdf. Accessed 27 June 2013.
- Hopfensperger, J. 2011. More female farmers are taking root. Standard-Examiner, August 11. http://www.standard.net/stories/2011/08/11/more-female-farmers-are-taking-root. Accessed 5 Dec 2011.
- Hoppe, R.A., and P. Korb. 2013. Characteristics of women farm operators. Economic Information Bulletin 111, U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib-economic-information-bulletin/eib111.aspx#.UuGKkRDnaUk. Accessed 5 June 2013.
- Kansas Farmers Markets. 2013. About ksfarmersmarkets.org. http://www.ksfarmersmarkets.org/about. Accessed 19 June 2013.
- Kansas Field Office USDA NASS. 2012. Kansas Farm Facts 2012. U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Kansas/Publications/Annual_Statistical_Bulletin/ff2012.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2013.
- Kote, A., B. Kumar, and P.M. Honnakeri. 2012. Impacts of microfinance on poverty alleviation and the empowerment of women with special reference to rural women empowerment and entrepreneurship development in India. International Journal of Research in Commerce and Management 3(4): 51–54.Google Scholar
- Ludden, J. 2004. Female farmers: A growing trend in America. National Public Radio. October 30. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4132715. Accessed 5 Dec 2011.
- Martin, S.E., and N.C. Jurik. 2006. Doing justice, doing gender: Women in legal and criminal justice occupations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Masterson, K. 2011. U.S. sees more female farmers cropping up. National Public Radio. March 30. http://www.npr.org/2011/03/30/134979252/u-s-sees-more-female-farmers-cropping-up. Accessed 5 Dec 2011.
- Nakamura, M., A. Nakamura, and D. Cullen. 1979. Job opportunities, the offered wage, and the labor supply of married women. American Economic Review 69(5): 787–805.Google Scholar
- Nutrition Business Journal. 2009. U.S. Organic Food Sales–($Mil) 1997–2010e–Chart 22. Boulder, CO: New Hope Natural Media Inc.Google Scholar
- Palmer, I. 1977. Rural women and the basic-needs approach to development. International Labour Review 115(1): 97–107.Google Scholar
- Pearson, J. 1979. Note on female farmers. Rural Sociology 44(1): 189–200.Google Scholar
- Reskin, B., and P.A. Roos. 1990. Job queues, gender queues: Explaining women’s inroads into male occupations. Philidelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Rosenfeld, R.A. 1985. Farm women: Work, farm, and family in the United States. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
- Rosenfeld, R.A., and L.M. Tigges. 1988. Marital status and independent farming: The importance of family labor flexibility to farm outcomes. In Women and farming: Changing roles, changing structures, ed. W.G. Haney, and J.B. Knowles, 171–192. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
- Rotella, E.J. 1981. From home to office: U.S. women at work, 1870–1930. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.Google Scholar
- Sachs, C.E. 1983. The invisible farmers: Women in agricultural production. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenheld.Google Scholar
- Singh, V. 2012. Role of women in agriculture in Chakia block, Chandauli district. Asia-Pacific Journal of Social Sciences 4(1): 66–78.Google Scholar
- The Economist. 2004. The new land girls: Women in farming. December 2. http://www.economist.com/node/3447386. Accessed 13 Oct 2010.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1970. Statistical Abstract of the United States. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical_abstract.html. Accessed 11 June 2013.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2013. Table P-36. Full-time, year-round all workers by median income and sex: 1955 to 2012. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/people/. Accessed 1 Nov 2013.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2002. 2002 Census publications. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2002/index.php. Accessed 23 May 2011.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2007. 2007 Census publications. http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Full_Report/index.asp. Accessed 23 May 2011.
- USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). 2010. Organic production—State level tables—Table 4. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/organic-production.aspx#.UcIP1rJlTNo. Accessed 19 June 2013.
- USDA Economic Research Service (ERS). 2012. Farm household income and characteristics Table 13. http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/farm-household-income-and-characteristics.aspx#.UrnY2fRDuSo. Accessed 1 Nov 2013.
- Villa, M., and K. Daugstand. 2007. Summer farmers: Gender discourses in new arenas. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 38(3): 395–408.Google Scholar
- Woods, T., M. Ernst, S. Ernst, and N. Wright. 2009. 2009 Survey of community supported agricultural producers. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/NewCrops/csareport.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2013.