Advertisement

Advances in Health Sciences Education

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 499–511 | Cite as

A summer prematriculation program to help students succeed in medical school

  • Stephen D. Schneid
  • April Apperson
  • Nora Laiken
  • Jess Mandel
  • Carolyn J. Kelly
  • Katharina BrandlEmail author
Article

Abstract

Medical schools with a diverse student body face the challenge of ensuring that all students succeed academically. Many medical schools have implemented prematriculation programs to prepare students from diverse backgrounds; however, evidence on their impact is largely lacking. In this study, we analyzed participants’ demographics as well as the impact of the prematriculation program on Year 1 performance. Predictive validity of the program was assessed and compared to other traditional predictors, including grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and subscores. Linear mixed effect models determined the impact of the prematriculation program, and linear regression analysis assessed the predictive value of the overall score in the prematriculation program and other traditional predictors. Demographics of students participating in the prematriculation program from 2013 to 2015 (n = 75) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of academically disadvantaged students including older students, students with lower GPA and MCAT scores and students of racial and ethnic populations that are underrepresented in medicine, compared to non-participants (n = 293). Participants performed significantly better in Year 1 courses that were covered in the prematriculation program compared to courses that were not covered. The overall performance in the prematriculation program correlated significantly with Year 1 performance and was found to be a strong predictor for Year 1 performance. This study suggests that a prematriculation program can help students to succeed in the first year of medical school. The results have implications for medical schools seeking to implement or evaluate the effectiveness of their prematriculation program.

Keywords

Prematriculation program Academic performance Prematriculation variables 

References

  1. Andriole, D. A., & Jeffe, D. B. (2010). Prematriculation variables associated with suboptimal outcomes for the 1994–1999 cohort of US medical school matriculants. JAMA, 304(11), 1212–1219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awad, A. M., Alamodi, A. A., Shareef, M. A., Alsheikh, A. J., Mahmoud, A. I., Daghistany, A. O., et al. (2014). The summer premedical program for matriculating medical students: A student-led initiative. Advances in Physiology Education, 38(1), 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, J. A., & Willies-Jacobo, L. J. (2012). Are disadvantaged and underrepresented minority applicants more likely to apply to the program in medical education-health equity? Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1535–1539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, D., Machler, M., Bolker, B. M., & Walker, S. C. (2015). Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battistella, M., Kaufman, D. M., & Talley, R. C. (2001). An online summer course for prematriculation medical students. Academic Medicine, 76(5), 499–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabrera, N. L., Miner, D. D., & Milem, J. F. (2013). Can a summer bridge program impact first-year persistence and performance?: A case study of the new start summer program. Research in Higher Education, 54(5), 481–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carmichael, C., & Taylor, J. A. (2005). Analysis of student beliefs in a tertiary preparatory mathematics course. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science & Technology, 36(7), 713–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carroll, R. G., & Lee-Tyson, M. G. (1994). Evaluation of a summer enrichment physiology course for matriculating medical students. American Journal of Physiology, 267(6 Pt 3), S87–S94.Google Scholar
  9. Deas, D., Pisano, E. D., Mainous, A. G., 3rd, Johnson, N. G., Singleton, M. H., Gordon, L., et al. (2012). Improving diversity through strategic planning: A 10-year (2002–2012) experience at theMedical University of South Carolina. Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1548–1555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downing, S. M. (2003). Validity: On meaningful interpretation of assessment data. Medical Education, 37(9), 830–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunleavy, D. M., Kroopnick, M. H., Dowd, K. W., Searcy, C. A., & Zhao, X. (2013). The predictive validity of the MCAT exam in relation to academic performance through medical school: A national cohort study of 2001–2004 matriculants. Academic Medicine, 88(5), 666–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Girotti, J. A., Park, Y. S., & Tekian, A. (2015). Ensuring a fair and equitable selection of students to serve society’s health care needs. Medical Education, 49(1), 84–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hairrell, A. R., Smith, S., McIntosh, D., & Chico, D. E. (2016). Impact of pre-matriculation instruction on student acculturation and first-year academic performance in medical school. Medical Science Educator, 26(4), 519–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heck, A. J., Gibbons, L., Ketter, S. J., Furlano, A., & Prest, L. (2017). A survey of the design of pre-matriculation courses at US medical schools. Medical Science Educator.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-017-0379-3.Google Scholar
  15. Hesser, A., & Lewis, L. (1992a). Evaluation of a summer prematriculation program for black and other nontraditional students. Academic Medicine, 67(4), 270–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hesser, A., & Lewis, L. (1992b). Prematriculation program grades as predictors of black and other nontraditional students’ first-year academic performances. Academic Medicine, 67(9), 605–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huff, K. L., & Fang, D. (1999). When are students most at risk of encountering academic difficulty? A study of the 1992 matriculants to U.S. medical schools. Academic Medicine, 74(4), 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jelsing, E. J., Lachman, N., O’Neil, A. E., & Pawlina, W. (2007). Can a flexible medical curriculum promote student learning and satisfaction? Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 36(9), 713–718.Google Scholar
  19. Kleshinski, J., Khuder, S. A., Shapiro, J. I., & Gold, J. P. (2009). Impact of preadmission variables on USMLE step 1 and step 2 performance. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice, 14(1), 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2015). lmerTest: Tests in linear mixed effects models. R package version 2.0–20. City. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/SensMixed/.
  21. Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., 3rd. (2008). Test-enhanced learning in medical education. Medical Education, 42(10), 959–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller, C. J. (2014). Implementation of a study skills program for entering at-risk medical students. Advances in Physiology Education, 38(3), 229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Musick, D. W., & Ray, R. H. (2016). Preparation for medical school via an intensive summer program for future doctors: A pilot study of student confidence and reasoning skills. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(2), 169–176.Google Scholar
  24. Peacock, J. G., & Grande, J. P. (2015). A flexible, preclinical, medical school curriculum increases student academic productivity and the desire to conduct future research. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 43(5), 384–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R Core Team. (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. City. http://www.R-project.org/.
  26. Richardson, B. L., & Saffran, M. (1985). Effects of a summer preview program of study skills and basic science topics on the academic performance of minority students. Journal of the National Medical Association, 77(6), 465–471.Google Scholar
  27. Sablan, J. R. (2014). The challenge of summer bridge programs. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(8), 1035–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Seifert, W. E., & Harper, A. (2007). The pre-entry program at UTMSH: Effect on academic performance of first-year medical students. Medical Science Educator, 17(2), 7.Google Scholar
  29. Sokal-Gutierrez, K., Ivey, S. L., Garcia, R. M., & Azzam, A. (2015). Evaluation of the program in medical education for the urban underserved (PRIME-US) at the UC Berkeley–UCSF joint medical program (JMP): The first 4 years. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 27(2), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stewart, S. M., Betson, C., Marshall, I., Wong, C. M., Lee, P. W., & Lam, T. H. (1995). Stress and vulnerability in medical students. Medical Education, 29(2), 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stoddard, H. A., Pamies, R. J., Carver, D. S., & Todd, G. L. (2008). Developing an online prematriculation orientation program and its relation to student performance in the first class taken in medical school. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 20(4), 302–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Strayhorn, T. L. (2011). Bridging the pipeline: Increasing underrepresented students’ preparation for college through a summer bridge program. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(2), 142–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thompson, H. C., 3rd, & Weiser, M. A. (1999). Support programs for minority students at Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Academic Medicine, 74(4), 390–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. van Merrienboer, J. J., & Sweller, J. (2010). Cognitive load theory in health professional education: Design principles and strategies. Medical Education, 44(1), 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wackett, A., Daroowalla, F., Lu, W. H., & Chandran, L. (2016). Reforming the 4th-year curriculum as a springboard to graduate medical training: One school’s experiences and lessons learned. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 28(2), 192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Williams, M. T. (1999). Pre-matriculation program at the University of South Florida College of Medicine. Academic Medicine, 74(4), 397–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilson, W. A., Henry, M. K., Ewing, G., Rehmann, J., Canby, C. A., Gray, J. T., et al. (2011). A prematriculation intervention to improve the adjustment of students to medical school. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 23(3), 256–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.School of MedicineUniversity of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations