What impact do students have on clinical educators and the way they practise?
- 577 Downloads
The clinical education setting plays an important part in teaching students about the real world of clinical practice. Traditionally the educational relationship between student and clinical educator has been considered one-way, with students being the ones that benefit. This review focuses on the areas of clinician practice and behaviour that students are reported to influence through clinical placements and as such, determine the overall impact students can have on supervising clinicians. Electronic searches were conducted across MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in July 2016. Retrieved articles were filtered to find those which presented data relating to students in the clinical setting. Data was extracted and analysed independently by two authors through thematic analysis. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that practitioners enjoy the act of teaching. Clinical student presence encourages clinicians to solidify their knowledge base, stimulates learning and causes them to re-evaluate their practice. Practitioner skills were further developed as a results of students. Clinical educator workload and time spent at work increased when a student was present with time management being the predominant challenge practitioners faced. Studies demonstrated that clinicians feel they benefit by students periodically becoming the teacher. Student placements in clinical practice cause an increase in practitioner workload and lengthen their work day. These perceived limitations are outweighed by the many benefits described by supervising clinicians. Providing clinical education can enrich both the practice, and the practitioner, and the aforementioned advantages should be highlighted when offering or considering the expansion of clinical placements.
KeywordsClinical education Student supervision Reciprocal learning
The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of Victoria Liarakos in the production of this review.
- Baldor, R. A., Brooks, W. B., Warfield, M. E., & O’Shea, K. (2001). A survey of primary care physicians’ perceptions and needs regarding the precepting of medical students in their offices. Medical Education, 35(8), 789–795. Retrieved from http://www.mededucation50.com/.
- Barritt, A., Silagy, C., Worley, P., Watts, R., Marley, J., & Gill, D. (1997). Attitudes of rural general practitioners towards undergraduate medical student attachments. Australian Family Physician, 26 Suppl 2, S87–S90. Retrieved from http://www.racgp.org.au/afp/.
- Boulton, M., Fitzpatrick, R., & Swinburn, C. (1996). Qualitative research in health care: II. A structure review and evaluation of studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 2(3), 171–179. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2753.
- Brown, S. R., & Birnbaum, B. (2005). Student and resident education and rural practice in the Southwest Indian Health Service: a physician survey. Family Medicine, 37(10), 701–705. Retrieved from http://www.stfm.org/NewsJournals/FamilyMedicine.
- Cochran Ward, E., Kwan, J., Garlan, K., Bassett, E., & Klein, L. (2013). ‘To teach or not to teach?’ Factors that motivate and constrain Australian emergency medicine physicians to teach medical students. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 25(4), 353–358. Retrieved from https://www.acem.org.au/.
- Dahlstrom, J., Dorai-Raj, A., McGill, D., Owen, C., Tymms, K., & Watson, D. A. (2005). What motivates senior clinicians to teach medical students? BMC Medical Education, 5(1), 27. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/5/27.
- Dodge, T. M., Guyer, M. S., Mazerolle, S. M., & Bowman, T. G. (2016). Reciprocal learning among preceptors and athletic training students during clinical education, part I: Frequency and perceived value. International Journal of Athletic Therapy and Training, 21(1), 35–42. doi: 10.1123/ijatt.2014-0126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gerrity, M. S., Pathman, D. E., Linzer, M., Steiner, B. D., Winterbottom, L. M., & Sharp, M. C. (1997). Career satisfaction and clinician-educators. The rewards and challenges of teaching. The Society of General Internal Medicine Career Satisfaction Study Group. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12(Suppl 2), S90–S97. Retrieved from http://www.jgim.org/.
- Grant, A., Prout, H., Hawthorne, K., Tapper Jones, L., & Houston, H. (2010). Some effects of teaching undergraduate medical students on general practitioner thinking and learning. Education for Primary Care, 21(2), 97–104. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tepc20.
- Grindel, C. G., Bateman, A. L., Patsdaughter, C. A., Babington, L. M., & Medici, G. (2001). Student contributions to clinical agencies: a comparison of adult health and psychiatric staff nurses’ perceptions. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(4), 197–202.Google Scholar
- Halcomb, E. J., Peters, K., & McInnes, S. (2012). Practice nurses experiences of mentoring undergraduate nursing students in Australian general practice. Nurse Education Today, 32(5), 524–528. Retrieved from http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/.
- Hartley, S., Macfarlane, F., Gantley, M., & Murray, E. (1999). Influence on general practitioners of teaching undergraduates: qualitative study of London general practitioner teachers. BMJ, 319(7218), 1168–1171. Retrieved from http://journals.bmj.com/.
- Holden, J., & Pullon, S. (1997). Trainee interns in general practices. The New Zealand medical journal, 110(1053), 377–379. Retrieved from https://www.nzma.org.nz/journal.
- Mathers, J., Parry, J., Lewis, S., & Greenfield, S. (2004). What impact will an increased number of teaching general practices have on patients, doctors and medical students? Medical Education, 38(12), 1219–1228. Retrieved from www.mededuc.com.
- May, M., Mand, P., Biertz, F., Hummers-Pradier, E., & Kruschinski, C. (2012). A survey to assess family physicians’ motivation to teach undergraduates in their practices. PLoS ONE, 7(9). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/.
- McCarthy, B., & Murphy, S. (2010). Preceptors’ experiences of clinically educating and assessing undergraduate nursing students: An Irish context. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(2), 234–244. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2834.
- Peadon, E., Caldwell, P. H., & Oldmeadow, W. (2010). I enjoy teaching but…: Paediatricians’ attitudes to teaching medical students and junior doctors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 46(11), 647–652. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-1754.
- Pichlhofer, O., Tonies, H., Spiegel, W., Wilhelm-Mitteracker, A., & Maier, M. (2013). Patient and preceptor attitudes towards teaching medical students in General Practice. BMC Medical Education, 13, 83. Retrieved from https://bmcmededuc.biomedcentral.com/.
- Scott-Jones, J., & Lucas, S. (2013). Rural general practice training: Experience of a rural general practice team and a postgraduate year two registrar. J Prim Health Care, 5(1), 243–248. Retrieved from http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/315.htm.
- Spencer, L., Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., & Dillon, L. (2003). Quality in qualitative evaluation: A framework for assessing research evidence. London: Cabinet Office. Retrieved from http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/networks/gsr/publications.
- Sturman, N., Rego, P., & Dick, M. L. (2011). Rewards, costs and challenges: the general practitioner’s experience of teaching medical students. Medical Education, 45(7), 722–730. Retrieved from www.mededuc.com.
- Tanguay, C. L. (2008). Supervising music therapy interns: A survey of AMTA national roster internship directors. Journal of Music Therapy, 45(1), 52–74. Retrieved from http://jmt.oxfordjournals.org/.
- Thomas, Y., Dickson, D., Broadbridge, J., Hopper, L., Hawkins, R., Edwards, A., & McBryde, C. (2007). Benefits and challenges of supervising occupational therapy fieldwork students: supervisors’ perspectives. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, S2–S12. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-1630.
- Vinson, D. C., & Paden, C. (1994). The effect of teaching medical students on private practitioners’ workloads. Academic Medicine, 69(3), 237–238. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/1994/03000/The_effect_of_teaching_medical_students_on_private.20.aspx.
- Vinson, D. C., Paden, C., & Devera-Sales, A. (1996). Impact of medical student teaching on family physicians’ use of time. Journal of Family Practice, 42(3), 243–249. Retrieved from http://www.mdedge.com/jfponline.
- Vinson, D. C., Paden, C., Devera-Sales, A., Marshall, B., & Waters, E. C. (1997). Teaching medical students in community-based practices: a national survey of generalist physicians. Journal of Family Practice, 45(6), 487–494. Retrieved from http://www.mdedge.com/jfponline.