Skip to main content

Predictable chaos: a review of the effects of emotions on attention, memory and decision making

Abstract

Healthcare practice and education are highly emotional endeavors. While this is recognized by educators and researchers seeking to develop interventions aimed at improving wellness in health professionals and at providing them with skills to deal with emotional interpersonal situations, the field of health professions education has largely ignored the role that emotions play on cognitive processes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the broader field of emotions, with the goal of better understanding the integral relationship between emotions and cognitive processes. Individuals, at any given time, are in an emotional state. This emotional state influences how they perceive the world around them, what they recall from it, as well as the decisions they make. Rather than treating emotions as undesirable forces that wreak havoc on the rational being, the field of health professions education could be enriched by a greater understanding of how these emotions can shape cognitive processes in increasingly predictable ways.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Arora, S., Ashrafian, H., Davis, R., Athanasiou, T., Darzi, A., & Sevdalis, N. (2010a). Emotional intelligence in medicine: A systematic review through the context of the ACGME competencies. Medical Education, 44(8), 749–764.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Arora, S., Sevdalis, N., Aggarwal, R., Sirimanna, P., Darzi, A., & Kneebone, R. (2010b). Stress impairs psychomotor performance in novice laparoscopic surgeons. Surgical Endoscopy, 24(10), 2588–2593.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Austin, E. J., Evans, P., Goldwater, R., & Potter, V. (2005). A preliminary study of emotional intelligence, empathy and exam performance in first year medical students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(8), 1395–1405.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bacon, S. J. (1974). Arousal and the range of cue utilization. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102(1), 81–87.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Barrett, L. F. (2006). Are emotions natural kinds? Perspectives on psychological science, 1(1), 28–58.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bath, J., & Lawrence, P. F. (2012). Twelve tips for developing and implementing an effective surgical simulation programme. Medical Teacher, 34(3), 192–197.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bechara, A., & Damasio, A. R. (2005). The somatic marker hypothesis: A neural theory of economic decision. Games and Economic Behavior, 52, 336–372.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bechara, A., Tranel, D., & Damasio, H. (2000). Characterization of the decision-making deficit in patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 123, 2189–2202.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bernsten, D. (2002). Tunnel memories for autobiographical events: Central details are remembered ore frequently from shocking than from happy experiences. Memory & Cognition, 30, 1010–1020.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Biss, R. K., & Hasher, L. (2011). Delighted and distracted: Positive affect increases priming for irrelevant information. Emotion, 11(6), 1474–1478.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Blanchette, I., & Richards, A. (2003). Anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguous information: Beyond the emotion-congruent effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132(2), 294–309.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bless, H. (2001). Mood and the use of general knowledge structures. In L. L. Martin (Ed.), Theories of mood and cognition: A user’s guidebook (pp. 9–26). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bless, H., & Fiedler, K. (2006). Mood and the regulation of information processing and behavior. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Hearts and minds: Affective influences on social cognition and behaviour (pp. 65–84). New York: Psychology Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Böhm, B., Rötting, N., Schwenk, W., Grebe, S., & Mansmann, U. (2001). A prospective randomized trial on heart rate variability of the surgical team during laparoscopic and conventional sigmoid resection. Archives of Surgery, 136(3), 305–310.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bolte, A., Goschke, T., & Kuhl, J. (2003). Emotion and intuition effects of positive and negative mood on implicit judgments of semantic coherence. Psychological Science, 14(5), 416–421.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bonanno, G. A., Papa, A., Lalande, K., Westphal, M., & Coifman, K. (2004). The importance of being flexible the ability to both enhance and suppress emotional expression predicts long-term adjustment. Psychological Science, 15(7), 482–487.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bower. G. H., & Forgas, J. P. (2001). Mood and social memory. Handbook of affect and social cognition, 95–120.

  18. Brancati, F. L. (1989). The art of pimping. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 89–90.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bulmer Smith, K., Profetto-McGrath, J., & Cummings, G. G. (2009). Emotional intelligence and nursing: An integrative literature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(12), 1624–1636.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1995). A novel demonstration of enhanced memory associated with emotional arousal. Consciousness and Cognition, 4, 410–421.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cahill, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 21, 294–299.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Chapman, H. A., Johannes, K., Poppenk, J. L., Moscovitch, M., & Anderson, A. K. (2012). Evidence for the differential salience of disgust and fear in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1100–1112.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Cherry, M. G., Fletcher, I., O’Sullivan, H., & Dornan, T. (2014). Emotional intelligence in medical education: A critical review. Medical Education, 48(5), 468–478.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cheung, R. Y., & Au, T. K. (2011). Nursing students’ anxiety and clinical performance. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(5), 286–289.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Clore, G. L., & Palmer, J. (2009). Affective guidance of intelligent agents: How emotion controls cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, 10(1), 21–30.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Clore, G. L., & Storbeck, J. (2006). Affect as information about liking, efficacy, and importance. In Forgas (Ed.), Affect in social thinking and behavior (pp. 123–142). New York, NY: Psychology press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Colibazzi, T., Posner, J., Wang, Z., Gorman, D., Gerber, A., Yu, S., et al. (2010). Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotions. Emotion, 10(3), 377.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Constans, J. I., & Mathews, A. M. (1993). Mood and the subjective risk of future events. Cognition and Emotion, 7(6), 545–560.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Croskerry, P. (2000). The cognitive imperative: Thinking about how we think. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7(11), 1223–1231.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Croskerry, P. (2003a). The importance of cognitive errors in diagnosis and strategies to minimize them. Academic Medicine, 78(8), 775–780.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Croskerry, P. (2003b). Cognitive forcing strategies in clinical decision making. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 41(1), 110–120.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Croskerry, P. (2009). Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: Applications of a dual process theory of reasoning. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 14(1), 27–35.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Custers, E. J. (2010). Long-term retention of basic science knowledge: A review study. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15(1), 109–128.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Custers, E. J., Regehr, G., & Norman, G. R. (1996). Mental representations of medical diagnostic knowledge: A review. Academic Medicine, 71(Suppl. 10), S55–S61.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Avon Books.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Damasio, A. R. (1997). Towards a neuropathology of emotion and mood. Nature, 386, 769–770.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Damasio, A. R., Everitt, B. J., & Bishop, D. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 351(1346), 1413–1420.

    Google Scholar 

  38. De Neys, W. (2010). Heuristic bias, conflict, and rationality in decision-making. In Towards a theory of thinking (pp. 23–33). Berlin: Springer.

  39. DeMaria, S., Bryson, E. O., Mooney, T. J., Silverstein, J. H., Reich, D. L., Bodian, C., et al. (2010). Adding emotional stressors to training in simulated cardiopulmonary arrest enhances participant performance. Medical Education, 44(10), 1006–1015.

    Google Scholar 

  40. DeMaria, S., & Levine, A. I. (2013). The use of stress to enrich the simulated environment. In The comprehensive textbook of healthcare simulation (pp. 65–72). New York: Springer.

  41. Dolan, R. J. (2002). Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science, 298(5596), 1191–1194.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2005). Medical student distress: Causes, consequences, and proposed solutions. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 80(12), 1613–1622).

  43. Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183–201.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Appraisal processes in emotion. Handbook of affective sciences, 572–595.

  45. Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., & Young, M. J. (1994). Positive affect improves creative problem solving and influences reported source of practice satisfaction in physicians. Motivation and Emotion, 18(4), 285–299.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Estrada, C. A., Isen, A. M., & Young, M. J. (1997). Positive affect facilitates integration of information and decreases anchoring in reasoning among physicians. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 72(1), 117–135.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Eva, K. W. (2005). What every teacher needs to know about clinical reasoning. Medical Education, 39, 98–106.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Fiedler, K. (2001). Affective influences on social information processing. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), The handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 163–185). Mahwah: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Fischhoff, B., Gonzalez, R. M., Lerner, J. S., & Small, D. A. (2012). Evolving judgments of terror risks: Foresight, hindsight, and emotion: A reanalysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 18, e1–e16.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Ford, J. H., Addis, D. R., & Giovanello, K. S. (2012). Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories. Memory, 20(7), 771–778.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences. 1367–1378.

  53. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 19(3), 313–332.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Friedman, B. H. (2010). Feelings and the body: The Jamesian perspective on autonomic specificity of emotion. Biological Psychology, 84(3), 383–393.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Gable, P. A., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2008). Approach-motivated positive affect reduces breadth of attention. Psychological Science, 19(5), 476–482.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Gable, P. A., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2010). The effects of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on memory for peripherally versus centrally presented information. Emotion, 10(4), 599–603.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Gasper, K., & Clore, G. L. (2002). Attending to the big picture: Mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological Science, 13(1), 34–40.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Gendron, M., & Barrett, L. F. (2009). Reconstructing the past: A century of ideas about emotion in psychology. Emotion Review, 1(4), 316–339.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Goldin, P. R., McRae, K., Ramel, W., & Gross, J. J. (2008). The neural basis of emotion regulation: Reappraisal and suppression of negative emotions. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 577–586.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Gros, C. (2010). Cognition and emotion: Perspectives on a closing gap. Cognitive Computation, 2(2), 78–85.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Hamann, S. (2001). Cognitive and neural mechanisms of emotional memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(9), 394–400.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Harvey, A., Bandiera, G., Nathens, A. B., & LeBlanc, V. R. (2012). The impact of stress on resident performance in simulated trauma scenarios. Journal of Trauma, 72(2), 497–503.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Harvey, A., Nathens, A. B., Bandiera, G. L., & LeBlanc, V. R. (2010). Threat and challenge: Cognitive appraisal and stress responses in simulated trauma resuscitations. Medical Education, 44(6), 587–594.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hayes, J. P., Morey, R. A., Petty, C. M., Seth, S., Smoski, M. J., McCarthy, G., et al. (2010). Staying cool when things get hot: Emotion regulation modulates neural mechanisms of memory encoding. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 230.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Hockey, G. R. J., John Maule, A., Clough, P. J., & Bdzola, L. (2000). Effects of negative mood states on risk in everyday decision making. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 823–855.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Humphrey-Murto, S., Leddy, J. J., Wood, T. J., Puddester, D., & Moineau, G. (2014). Does emotional intelligence at medical school admission predict future academic performance? Academic Medicine, 89(4), 638–643.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Isen, A. M., Rosenzweig, A. S., & Young, M. J. (1991). The influence of positive affect on clinical problem solving. Medical Decision Making, 11(3), 221–227.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar (Straus and Giroux).

    Google Scholar 

  70. Kaplan, R. L., Van Damme, I., & Levine, L. J. (2012). Motivation matters: Differing effects of pre-goal and post-goal emotions on attention and memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Kensinger, E. A. (2004). Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 15(4), 241–252.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Kensinger, E. A. (2009). Remembering the details: Effects of emotions. Emotion Review, 1(2), 99–113.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Kensinger, E. A., & Corkin, S. (2003). Memory enhancement for emotional words: Are emotional words more vividly remembered than neutral words? Memory & Cognition, 31, 1169–1180.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kensinger, E. A., & Corkin, S. (2004). Two routes to emotional memory: Distinct neural processes for valence and arousal. Proceeding from the New York Academy of Sciences, 101(9), 3310–3315.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Kok, E. M., de Bruin, A. B., Robben, S. G., & van Merriënboer, J. J. (2012). Learning radiological appearances of diseases: Does comparison help? Learning and Instruction, 23, 90–97.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Kromann, C. B., Jensen, M. L., & Ringsted, C. (2011). Test‐enhanced learning may be a gender‐related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level. Medical education, 45(2), 192–199.

  77. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Cognition and motivation in emotion. American Psychologist, 46(4), 352–367.

    Google Scholar 

  78. LeBlanc, V. R. (2009). The effects of acute stress on performance: Implications for health professions education. Academic Medicine, 84(10), S25–S33.

    Google Scholar 

  79. LeBlanc, V. R., Regehr, C., Tavares, W., Scott, A. K., MacDonald, R., & King, K. (2012). The impact of stress on paramedic performance during simulated critical events. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 1(1), 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Lerner, J. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Small, D. A., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Effects for fear and anger on perceived risks of terrorism: A national field experiment. Psychological Science, 14, 144–150.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2000). Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgement and choice. Cognition and Emotion, 14(4), 473–493.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Lerner, J. S., & Tiedens, L. Z. (2006). Portrait of the angry decision maker: How appraisal tendencies shape anger’s influence on cognition. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19(2), 115–137.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Libkumann, Tm., Stabler, C. L., & Otani, H. (2004). Arousal, valence, and memory for details. Memory, 12, 237–247.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Macdougall, L., Martin, R., McCallum, I., & Grogan, E. (2013). Simulation and stress: acceptable to students and not confidence-busting. The Clinical Teacher, 10(1), 38–41.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Maner, J. K., Richey, J. A., Cromer, K., Mallott, M., Lejuez, C. W., Joiner, T. E., et al. (2007). Dispositional anxiety and risk-avoidant decision-making. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(4), 665–675.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Mather, M. (2007). Emotional arousal and memory binding: An object based-framework. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 33–52.

    Google Scholar 

  87. McConnell, M. M., & Eva, K. W. (2012). The role of emotion in the learning and transfer of clinical skills and knowledge. Academic Medicine, 87(10), 1316–1322.

    Google Scholar 

  88. McConnell, M. M., & Shore, D. I. (2011). Upbeat and happy: Arousal as an important factor in studying attention. Cognition and Emotion, 25(7), 1184–1195.

    Google Scholar 

  89. McNaughton, N. (2013). Discourse (s) of emotion within medical education: The ever-present absence. Medical Education, 47(1), 71–79.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Mittal, V., & Ross, W. T., Jr. (1998). The impact of positive and negative affect and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76(3), 298–324.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Monteiro, S. M., & Norman, G. (2013). Diagnostic reasoning: Where we’ve been, where we’re going. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 25(sup1), S26–S32.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Nabi, R. L. (2003). Exploring the framing effects of emotion: Do discrete emotions differentially influence information accessibility, information seeking, and policy preference? Communication Research, 30(2), 224–247.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Naqvi, N., Shiv, B., & Bechar, A. (2006). The role of emotion on decision-making. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 260–264.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Niedenthal, P. M., & Setterlund, M. B. (1994). Emotion congruence in perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(4), 401–411.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Norman, G. R., & Eva, K. W. (2010). Diagnostic error and clinical reasoning. Medical Education, 44(1), 94–100.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Pessoa, L. (2008). On the relationship between emotion and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(2), 148–158.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Phelps, E. A. (2006). Emotion and cognition: Insights from studies on the human amygdala. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 27–53.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Posner, J., Russell, J. A., & Peterson, B. S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17(03), 715–734.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Pottier, P., Dejoie, T., Hardouin, J. B., Le Loupp, A. G., Planchon, B., Bonnaud, A., et al. (2013). Effect of stress on clinical reasoning during simulated ambulatory consultations. Medical Teacher, 35(6), 472–480.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Raghunathan, R., & Pham, M. T. (1999). All negative moods are not equal: Motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 79, 56–77.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Redelmeier, D. A. (2005). The cognitive psychology of missed diagnoses. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(2), 115–120.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Regehr, C., LeBlanc, V. R., Jelley, R. B., & Barath, I. (2008). Acute stress and performance in police recruits. Stress and Health, 24(4), 295–303.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Reisberg, D., & Heuer, F. (2004). Memory for emotional events. In D. Reisberg & P. Hertel (Eds.), Memory and emotions (pp. 3–41). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Remington, N. A., Fabrigar, L. R., & Visser, P. S. (2000). Reexamining the circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(2), 286.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Richards, A., French, C. C., Calder, A. J., Webb, B., Fox, R., & Young, A. W. (2002). Anxiety-related bias in the classification of emotionally ambiguous facial expressions. Emotion, 2(3), 273–287.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 410–424.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2006). Personality and emotional memory: How regulating emotion impairs memory for emotional events. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(5), 631–651.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Roseman, I., & Evdokas, A. (2004). Appraisals cause experienced emotions: Experimental evidence. Cognition and Emotion, 18(1), 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1161.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Sandars, J. (2009). The use of reflection in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 44. Medical Teacher, 31(8), 685–695.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Satterfield, J. M., & Hughes, E. (2007). Emotion skills training for medical students: A systematic review. Medical Education, 41(10), 935–941.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Scherer, K. R. (1994). Towards a concept of “modal emotions”. In P. Ekman & R. J. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (pp. 25–31). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (2007). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In E. T. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and social behavior (pp. 44–62). Toronto: C.J. Hogrefe.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Shanafelt, T. D., Boone, S., Tan, L., Dyrbye, L. N., Sotile, W., Satele, D., et al. (2012). Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(18), 1377–1385.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Siemer, M., Mauss, I., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Same situation- different emotions: How appraisals shape our emotions. Emotion, 7(3), 592–600.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(6), 1460–1469.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Stolper, E., Van de Wiel, M., Van Royen, P., Van Bokhoven, M., Van der Weiiden, T., & Dinant, G. J. (2011). Gut feelings as a third track in general practitioners’ diagnostic reasoning. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26(2), 197–203.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Storbeck, J., & Clore, G. L. (2008). Affective arousal as information: How affective arousal influences judgments, leaning, and memory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1824–1843.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Talarico, J. M., Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2009). Positive emotions enhance recall of peripheral details. Cognition and Emotion, 23(2), 380–398.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Tanner, C. A. (2006). Thinking like a nurse: A research-based model of clinical judgment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(6), 204–211.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Wear, D., Kokinova, M., Keck-McNulty, C., & Aultman, J. (2005). Pimping: Perspectives of 4th year medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine: An International Journal., 17, 184–191.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Wetzel, M., Black, S. A., Hanna, G. B., Athanasiou, T., Kneebone, R. L., Nestel, D., et al. (2010). The effects of stress and coping on surgical performance during simulations. Annals of Surgery, 251(1), 171–176.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Woolley, A., & Kostopoulou, O. (2013). Clinical intuition in family medicine: More than first impressions. The annals of family medicine, 11(1), 60–66.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vicki R. LeBlanc.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

LeBlanc, V.R., McConnell, M.M. & Monteiro, S.D. Predictable chaos: a review of the effects of emotions on attention, memory and decision making. Adv in Health Sci Educ 20, 265–282 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-014-9516-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Emotions
  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Reasoning
  • Clinical Performance