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Towards an Internet of Agents model based on Linked Open Data approach

  • Pablo Pico-Valencia
  • Juan A. Holgado-TerrizaEmail author
  • J. A. Senso
Article
  • 104 Downloads

Abstract

The Internet of Agents (IoA) is a current approach to the Future Internet that has arisen as an alternative to mitigate the limitations of the Internet of Things (IoT) concerning autonomy, reasoning and social capabilities. The aim of this paper is to present a novel architectural model governed by semantic contracts, published as linked data which describe the main aspects regarding the IoA domain, such as context, social circles, services ecosystems, IoT resources, and real-time restrictions. This proposal introduces some mechanisms such as (i) Linked Open Agents (LOAs) as the main unit of process for coordinating and managing IoT-objects, (ii) Linked Agent Contracts (LACs) as contractual semantic descriptions of entities of IoA ecosystems, (iii) an ontology named IoA-OWL that covers the current main aspects related to the IoA, (iv) a Reference Architecture for the IoA approach driven by LOAs and LACs, and (v) a mechanism for agent-discovery based on semantic descriptors. Both the model and its mechanisms are integrated, in order to improve the semantic interoperability and intelligence in heterogeneous IoT networks controlled by Multi-Agent Systems. Finally, a case study is proposed for a scenario of Ambient Intelligence as a working example of the novel architectural model. In addition, a qualitative and quantitative evaluation is then performed to analyze the applicability, performance, functionality of our proposal. A better performance was obtained for the agent discovery process with our architecture in contrast to JADE Yellow Pages and the Java implementation of the Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration.

Keywords

Linked Open Data Internet of Agents Internet of Things Linked Open Agent Contract Ontology 

Abbreviations

AAA

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting

ACL

Agent Communication Language

AmI

Ambient Intelligence

BDI

Belief, Desire, Intention

DbC

Design by Contract

DOHA

Dynamic Open Home-Automation

DPWS

Devices Profile for Web Services

FIPA

Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents

IoA

Internet of Agents

IoS

Internet of Services

IoT

Internet of Things

IRI

Internationalized Resource Identifier

JADE

Java Agent Development Framework

JSON

JavaScript Object Notation

JSON-LD

JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data

jUDDI

Java implementation of the Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

LAC

Linked Agent Contract

LOA

Linked Open Agent

LOD

Linked Open Data

MAS

Multi-Agent System

OWL

Web Ontology Language

REST

Representational State Transfer

RDF

Resource Description Framework

SOA

Service-Oriented Architecture

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

SPARQL

SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier

UUID

Universally Unique Identifier

WAC

Workflow for Agent Contract

XML

Extensible Markup Language

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Ecuadorian Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation (SENESCYT) through the Program of Ph.D. for university professors. In addition, the authors thank the Center for Research in Information and Communication Technologies of the University of Granada (CITIC-UGR). Finally, the authors would also like to thank the referee for a careful reading of the paper and some valuable suggestions.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pontifical Catholic University of EcuadorEsmeraldasEcuador
  2. 2.University of GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.University of GranadaGranadaSpain

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