Skip to main content

Thermal comfort indices assessed in integrated production systems in the Brazilian savannah

Abstract

The objective was to evaluate the animal thermal comfort indices from two integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) systems. For this, temperature–humidity index (THI), black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHI), and the radiant thermal load (RTL) were assessed. Two ICLF (ICLF-1 and ICLF-2) systems and one control system were established. On the ICLF systems, the arboreal component was the eucalyptus tree (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla; H13 clone), planted in simple wide-spaced rows. The ICLF-1 system had a tree spacing of 14 × 2 m with 357 trees per hectare, and the ICLF-2 had a tree spacing of 22 × 2 m with 227 trees per hectare. The control system had five scattered native trees per hectare, pertaining to Gochnatia and Dipteryx species. The forage component in all three systems was piatã-grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. BRS Piatã). The experimental design was a randomized block in a sub-subplot design scheme with four replications. The presence of shade provided by the trees offered better conditions of animal comfort when compared with the condition of full sun. The ICLF-1 system, with higher tree density, provided better indicators for thermal comfort, THI, BGHI, and RTL when compared with the condition of full sun, while ICLF-2 was no different than ICLF-1 for BGHI.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  • Almeida RG, Andrade CMS, Paciullo DSC, Fernandes PCC, Cavalcante ACR, Barbosa RA, Valle CB (2013) Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep. Trop Grassl 1:175–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alves FV (2012) O componente animal em sistemas de produção em integração. In: Bungenstab DJ (ed) Sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta: a produção sustentável, 2nd edn. Embrapa, Brasilia

    Google Scholar 

  • Baccari Junior F (2001) Manejo Ambiental da Vaca Leiteira em Climas Quentes. EDUEL, Londrina

    Google Scholar 

  • Baêta FC (1985) Responses of lactating dairy cows to the combined effects of temperature, humidity and wind velocity in the warm season. Dissertation, University of Missouri

  • Baêta FC, Souza CF (2010) Ambiência em Edificações Rurais: Conforto Animal. Editora UFV, Viçosa

    Google Scholar 

  • Baliscei MA, Barbosa OR, Souza W, Costa MAT, Krutzmann A, Queiroz EO (2013) Microclimate without shade and silvopastoral system during summer and winter. Acta Sci Anim Sci 35:49–56. doi:10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.15155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandão M, Laca-Buendia JP, Macedo JF (2002) Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. In: Árvores nativas e exóticas do Estado de Minas Gerais. EPAMIG, Belo Horizonte

  • Broom DM, Galindo FA, Murgueitio E (2013) Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals. Proc R Soc B 280:2013–2025. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buffington DE, Collazo-Arocho A, Canton GH, Pitt D, Thatcher WW, Collier RJ (1981) Black globe-humidity index (BGHI) as comfort equation for dairy cows. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 24:711–714. doi:10.13031/2013.34325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buller LS, Bergier I, Ortega E, Moraes A, Bayma-Silva G, Zanetti MR (2015) Soil improvement and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions for integrated crop–livestock systems: case study assessment in the Pantanal savanna highland, Brazil. Agric Syst 137:206–219. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2014.11.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dias PF, Souto SM (2006) Análise de fatores aplicada na avaliação da influência de leguminosas arbóreas, nas características químicas de solo sob pastagem. Rev Univ Rural Sér da Vida 26:24–32

    Google Scholar 

  • Esmay ML (1978) Principles of animal environment. Avi Publishing, Westport

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira RA, Botelho SA, Davide AC, Malavasi MM (1998) Caracterização morfológica de fruto, semente, plântula e muda de Dipteryx alata Vogel—Baru (Leguminosae Papilionoideae). Cerne 4:73–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira F, Pires MFA, Martinez ML, Coelho SG, Carvalho AU, Ferreira PM, Facury Filho EJ, Campos WE (2006) Parâmetros fisiológicos de bovinos cruzados submetidos ao estresse calórico. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 58:732–738. doi:10.1590/S0102-09352006000500005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glaser FD (2003) Aspectos comportamentais de bovinos da raça Angus a pasto frente à disponibilidade de recursos de sombra e água para imersão. Master’s dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo

  • Guarim Neto G (1986) Plantas ornamentais de Mato Grosso. Boletim FBCN 21:105–115

    Google Scholar 

  • Gurgel EM, Seraphim OJ, Silva IJO (2012) Método de avaliação bioclimática da qualidade da sombra de árvores visando ao conforto térmico animal. Energ Agric 27:20–34. doi:10.17224/EnergAgric.2012v27n2p20-34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karvatte Júnior N, Klosowski ES, de Almeida RG, Mesquita EE, Oliveira CC, Alves FV (2016) Shading effect on microclimate and thermal comfort indexes in integrated crop-livestock-forest systems in the Brazilian Midwest. Int J Biometeorol 60:1–9. doi:10.1007/s00484-016-1180-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kawabata CY, Castro RC, Savastano Júnior H (2005) Índices de conforto térmico e respostas fisiológicas de bezerros da raça holandesa em bezerreiros individuais com diferentes coberturas. Eng Agríc 25:598–607. doi:10.1590/S0100-69162005000300004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kazama R, Roma CFC, Barbosa OR, Zeoula LM, Ducatti T, Tesolin LC (2008) Orientação e sombreamento do confinamento na temperatura da superfície do pelame de bovinos. Acta Sci Anim Sci 30:211–216. doi:10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4702

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelly C, Bond TE (1971) Bioclimatic factors and their measurement. In: National Academic of Sciences (ed) A guide to environmental research on animals. National Academic of Sciences, Washington, pp 71–92

  • Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006) World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol Z 15:259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindon F, Gomes H, Campos A (2001) Anatomia e morfologia externa das plantas superiores. Lidel, Lisbon

    Google Scholar 

  • Marques JA, Caldas Neto SF, Groff AM, Simonelli SM, Corasa J, Romero L, Zawadski F, Araújo PF (2006) Comportamento de bovinos mestiços em confinamento com e sem acesso a sombra durante o período de verão. Campo Dig 1:54–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore DA, Duprau JL, Wenz JR (2012) Short communication: effects of dairy calf hutch elevation on heat reduction, carbon dioxide concentration, air circulation, and respiratory rates. J Dairy Sci 95:4050–4054. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-5397

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Navarini FC, Klosowski ES, Campos AT, Teixeira RA, Almeida CP (2009) Conforto térmico de bovinos da raça nelore a pasto sob diferentes condições de sombreamento e a pleno sol. Eng Agríc 29:508–517. doi:10.1590/S0100-69162009000400001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira CC, Villela SDJ, Almeida RG, Alves FV, Behling Neto A, Martins PGMA (2014) Performance of Nellore heifers, forage mass, and structural and nutritional characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha grass in integrated production systems. Trop Anim Health Prod 46:167–172. doi:10.1007/s11250-013-0469-1

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pires MFA, Paciullo DS (2015) Bem-estar animal em sistemas integrados. In: Alves FV, Laura VA, Almeida RG (eds) Sistemas agroflorestais: A agropecuária sustetável, 1st edn. Embrapa, Brasilia

    Google Scholar 

  • Porfírio-da-Silva V (2003) Sistemas silvipastoris em Mato Grosso do Sul. Para quê adota-los? In: Proceedings ofthe Seminário Sistemas Agroflorestais e Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Embrapa Gado de Corte, Campo Grande, pp 1–13

  • Salton JC, Mercante FM, Tomazi M, Zanatta JA, Concenço G, Silva WM, Retore M (2014) Integrated crop-livestock system in tropical Brazil: toward a sustainable production system. Agric Ecosyst Environ 190:70–79. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2013.09.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sandeville E Jr (2004) A divisão natural das paisagens brasileiras. Paisagem Ambiente Ensaios 18:71–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schütz KE, Rogers AR, Cox NR, Tucker CB (2009) Dairy cows prefer shade that offers greater protection against solar radiation in summer: shade use, behavior and body temperature. Appl Anim Behav Sci 116:28–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silva RG (2000) Introdução à bioclimatologia animal. Nobel, São Paulo

    Google Scholar 

  • Silva RG (2008) Biofísica ambiental: Os animais e seu ambiente. Funep, Jaboticabal

    Google Scholar 

  • Silva IJ, Ghelfi Filho OK, Consiglero FR (1990) Materiais de cobertura para instalações animais. Eng Rural 1:51–60

    Google Scholar 

  • Souza CF, Tinôco IFF, Baêta FC, Ferreira WPM, Silva RS (2002) Avaliação de materiais alternativos para confecção do termômetro de globo. Ciênc Agrotec 26:157–164

    Google Scholar 

  • Thom EC (1958) Cooling degrees: day air-conditioning, heating and ventilating. Trans Am Soc Heat Refrig Air Cond Eng 55:65–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornton PK, Van de Steeg J, Notenbaert A, Herrero M (2009) The impacts of climate change on livestock and livestock systems in developing countries: a review of what we know and what we need to know. Agric Syst 101:113–127. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2009.05.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Brazilian funding agencies CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), for a scholarship granted to C.C. de Oliveira and P.G.M.A Martins (Grant no. 23038.008980/2013-90), and FUNDECT (Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul), for financial support. In addition, the authors express appreciation to the staff from the Embrapa Beef Cattle Research Unit for assistance during this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Caroline Carvalho de Oliveira.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

de Oliveira, C.C., Alves, F.V., de Almeida, R.G. et al. Thermal comfort indices assessed in integrated production systems in the Brazilian savannah. Agroforest Syst 92, 1659–1672 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0114-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-017-0114-5

Keywords

  • Ambience
  • Black globe temperature index
  • Integrated systems
  • Shading
  • Thermal stress