Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 91, Issue 5, pp 811–824 | Cite as

Can farmer-to-farmer communication boost the dissemination of agroforestry innovations? A case study from Sulawesi, Indonesia

  • Endri Martini
  • James M. Roshetko
  • Enggar Paramita
Article

Abstract

Research agencies generate a vast number of agroforestry innovations, many of which have significant potential to increase productivity and to improve livelihoods. However, the dissemination of information related to these innovations and their adoption rate remains low throughout Indonesia, particularly in areas with a low level of infrastructure development, such as in Sulawesi, Indonesia. In areas such as these, interpersonal communication between farmers (farmer-to-farmer interpersonal communication) is a significant means by which farmers obtain information related to agroforestry innovations that they may utilize to improve the productivity of their plots. Given the significance of this channel of communication, further investigation is merited to assess how it might be leveraged to improve the dissemination of information related to agroforestry innovations and how it can complement the use of other communication channels. Thus, this study was conducted to identify how farmer-to-farmer interpersonal communication is used and the extent to which it is a preferred means by which information related to agroforestry innovations is disseminated in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews involving 144 farmers (40 % female) from 12 villages in the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results show distinct differences in terms of farmers’ preferences for the various types of disseminators of information related to agroforestry innovations between provinces and genders. It was found that farmers play a significant role as reliable disseminators of information related to agroforestry innovations to a greater extent in areas where farmer’s access to government extension agents is limited and where language barriers act as a constraint to the dissemination of information by these agents. Farmer-to-farmer communication is not the only communication channel for the dissemination of the information, but it is preferred by farmers who only speak local languages. Thus, to enhance the dissemination rate of agroforestry innovations, farmer-to-farmer communication channels should be utilized to complement the use of other channels. In areas where farmer-to-farmer communication channels are preferred, deliberate measures to improve expert farmers’ and opinion leaders’ access to information related to agricultural and agroforestry innovations will facilitate the effective dissemination of this information amongst a greater number of farmers.

Keywords

Communication channels Expert farmers Extension agents South Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported through the Agroforestry and Forestry: Linking Knowledge to Action (AgFor) project (Contribution Arrangement No. 7056890), funded by Global Affairs Canada (GAC), Government of Canada. We appreciate the assistance and contribution of the collaborating communities and of local government offices in Bantaeng, Bulukumba, Konawe and Kolaka. We offer special thanks to Dr. Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Dr. Daniel Callo-Concha, Dr. Manfred Denich, and two unknown reviewers for their constructive inputs to the paper, which played a significant role in enhancing the quality of this paper. Also to Mr. Irfan Kortschak for the English editing of the paper.

References

  1. Adhiguru P, Birthal PS, Kumar BG (2009) Strengthening pluralistic agricultural information delivery systems in India. Agric Econ Res Rev 22:71–79Google Scholar
  2. Anderson JR, Feder G (2004) Agricultural extension: good intentions and hard realities. World Bank Res Obs 19(1):41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badan Penyuluhan dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian (BP2SDMP) (2013) Data penyuluh pertanian swadaya sampai dengan Juli 2011. Department of Agriculture, Indonesia. http://cybex.deptan.go.id/page/penyuluh-swadaya
  4. Beer J, Ibrahim M, Sinclair F (2005) The history and future of agroforestry research and development: policy impacts and needs. In: Mery G, Alfaro R, Kanninen M, Lobovikov M (eds) Forests in the global balance—changing paradigms, vol 17. IUFRO World Series, Helsinki, p 318Google Scholar
  5. Feder G, Savastano S (2006) The role of opinion leaders in the diffusion of new knowledge: the case of integrated pest management. World Dev 34(7):1287–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Feder G, Willet A, Zijp W (1999) Agricultural extension: generic challenges and some ingredients for solutions. World Policy Research Working Paper 2129, World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Feder G, Anderson JR, Birner R, Deininger K (2010) Promises and realities of community-based agricultural extension. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 00959, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  8. Franzel S, Wambugu C (2007) The uptake of fodder shrubs among smallholders in East Africa: key elements that facilitate widespread adoption. In: Hare MD, Wongpichet K (eds) Forages: a pathway to prosperity for smallholder farmers. Proceedings of an international symposium. Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand, pp 203–222Google Scholar
  9. Glendinning A, Mahapatra A, Mitchell CP (2001) Modes of communication and effectiveness of agroforestry extension in Eastern India. Hum Ecol 29(3):283–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Isaac ME, Erickson BE, Quashie-Sam S, Timmer VR (2007) Transfer of knowledge on agroforestry management practices: the structure of farmer advice networks. Ecol Soc 12(2):32. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss2/art32/
  11. Janudianto, Khususiyah N, Isnurdiansyah, Suyanto S, Roshetko JM (2012) Agroforestry and forestry in Sulawesi series: livelihood strategies and land use system dynamics in Southeast Sulawesi ICRAF Working paper no. 156. Indonesia World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Bogor, p 53. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/publications/PDFs/WP12055.PDF
  12. Kante A, Dunkel F, Williams A, Magro S, Traore H, Camara A (2009) Communicating agricultural and health-related information in low literacy communities: a case study of villagers served by Bougoula Commune in Mali. Paper presented at Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 25th Annual ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  13. Khususiyah N, Janudianto, Isnurdiansyah, Suyanto S, Roshetko JM (2012) Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: livelihood strategies and land use system dynamics in South Sulawesi ICRAF Working paper no. 155. Indonesia World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Bogor, p 47. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/WP12054.PDF
  14. Kiptot E, Franzel S (2013) Voluntarism as an investment in human, social and financial capital: evidence from a farmer-to-farmer extension program in Kenya. Agric Hum Values 31(2):231–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kiptot E, Franzel S, Hebinck P, Richards P (2006) Sharing seed and knowledge: farmer to farmer dissemination of agroforestry technologies in western Kenya. Agrofor Syst 68(3):167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lambert O, Ozioma AF (2011) Adoption of improved agroforestry technologies among contact farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Asian J Agric Rural Dev 2(1):1–9Google Scholar
  17. Leakey RRB, Weber JC, Page T, Cornelius JP, Akinnifesi FK, Roshetko JM, Tchoundjeu Z, Jamnadass R (2012) Tree domestication in agroforestry: progress in the second decade. In: Nair PKR, Garrity DP (eds) The future of agroforestry. Springer, New York, pp 145–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martini E, Tarigan J, Roshetko JM, Manurung G, Kurniawan I, Tukan J, Budidarsono S, Abdo M, van Noordwijk M (2008) Capacity building activities to strengthen agroforestry as sustainable economic alternative in the orangutan habitat conservation program of Batang Toru, North Sumatra. WP number 61. World Agroforestry Centre—ICRAF SEA Regional Office, Bogor, p 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martini E, Tarigan J, Purnomosidhi P, Prahmono A, Surgana M, Setiawan E, Megawati, Mulyoutami E, Meldy BW, Syamsidar, Talui R, Janudianto, Suyanto S, Roshetko JM (2012) Agroforestry and forestry in Sulawesi series: agroforestry extension needs at the community level in AgFor project sites in South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Working paper 159. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Program, Bogor, p 43Google Scholar
  20. Martini E, Saad U, Angreiny Y, Roshetko JM (2014) Kebun belajar agroforestri: konsep dan pembelajaran dari sulawesi selatan dan tenggara. Paper presented at Seminar Nasional Agroforestri ke-5, Ambon, 21 Nov 2014Google Scholar
  21. Matata PZ, Masolwa LW, Ruvuga S, Bagarama FM (2013) Dissemination pathways for scaling-up agroforestry technologies in western Tanzania. J Agric Ext Rural Dev 5(2):31–36Google Scholar
  22. Mercer DE (2004) Adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics: a review. Agrofor Syst 61(1):311–328Google Scholar
  23. Minh TT, Neef A, Hoffmann V (2011) Agricultural knowledge transfer and innovation processes in Vietnam’s Northwestern Uplands: state-governed or demand-driven? Southeast Asian Stud 48(4):425–455Google Scholar
  24. Mwase W, Sefasi A, Njoloma J, Nyoka BI, Manduwa D, Nyaika J (2015) Factors affecting adoption of agroforestry and evergreen agriculture in Southern Africa. Environ Nat Resour Res 5(2):148–157Google Scholar
  25. Okwu OT, Daudu S (2011) Extension communication channel’s usage and preference by farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. J Agric Ext Rural Dev 3(5):88–94Google Scholar
  26. Pattanayak SK, Mercer DE, Sills E, Yang JC (2003) Taking stock of agroforestry adoption studies. Agrofor Syst 57:173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Place F, Ajayi OC, Torquebiau E, Detlefsen G, Gauthier M, Buttoud G (2012) Improved policies for facilitating the adoption of agroforestry. In: Kaonga M (ed) Agroforestry for biodiversity and ecosystem services—science and practice. InTech, Rijeka, pp 113–128Google Scholar
  28. Pomp M, Burger K (1995) Innovation and imitation: adoption of Cocoa by Indonesian smallholders. World Dev 23(3):423–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers EM (2003) Diffusion of innovations, 5th edn. Free Press, New York, p 576Google Scholar
  30. Roshetko JM, Nugraha E, Tukan JCM, Manurung G, Fay C, Van Noordwijk M (2007) Agroforestry for livelihood enhancement and enterprise development. In: Djoeroemana S, Myers B, Russell-Smith J, Blyth M, Salean IET (eds) Integrated rural development in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Proceedings of a workshop to identify sustainable rural livelihoods. ACIAR Proceedings No. 126, Kupang, pp 137–148, 5–7 April 2006Google Scholar
  31. Roshetko JM, Idris N, Purnomosidhi P, Zulfadhli T, Tarigan J (2013) Farmer extension approach to rehabilitate smallholder fruit agroforestry systems: the nurseries of excellence (noel) program in Aceh, Indonesia. Acta Hort (ISHS) 975:649–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Solomon IA (2011) Analysis of communication and dissemination channels influencing uptake of integrated soil fertility management among smallholder farmers in Western Kenya. Thesis for master. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya, p 118Google Scholar
  33. Syahyuti S (2014) Peran strategis penyuluh swadaya dalam paradigma baru penyuluhan pertanian di Indonesia. Majalah Forum Agro Ekonomi 32(1):43–58Google Scholar
  34. Winarto YT (2011) Weaving the diverse ‘seeds’ of knowledge. Asia Pac J Anthropol 12(3):274–287. doi: 10.1080/14442213.2011.568928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Endri Martini
    • 1
  • James M. Roshetko
    • 1
  • Enggar Paramita
    • 2
  1. 1.World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)Jl. CIFORBogorIndonesia
  2. 2.School of Communication and Arts, Faculty Humanities and Social SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbane St LuciaAustralia

Personalised recommendations