Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp 383–396 | Cite as

Managing tropical agroforestry for conservation of flocking migratory birds

  • Molly E. McDermott
  • Amanda D. Rodewald
  • Stephen N. Matthews
Article

Abstract

Agroforestry systems have great potential to conserve biodiversity in highly-altered tropical landscapes. Although certain types of agroforestry, such as shade-coffee and cacao, are well known to support a diverse assemblage of resident and migratory birds, the ability of silvopastures to contribute to bird conservation is poorly understood. Important physiognomic differences among agroforestry systems suggest that the most effective habitat management strategies to support migratory birds may likewise differ. We surveyed two common agroforestry systems, shade-coffee plantations and silvopastures, in the Colombian Andes from 2011 to 2013 to identify which physiognomic features were most heavily associated with use by mixed-species flocks and migratory birds. Contrary to our expectations, the same management strategies may perform well in both systems. Flock activity increased with increasing canopy cover and tree density in both shade-coffee and silvopastoral systems. In addition, abundances of several migratory bird species within flocks increased with tree basal area and structural complexity, indicating that complex agroforests with a mid-range of canopy cover will provide the most suitable habitat for migrants attending mixed-species flocks. Our study suggests that suitability of shade-coffee and silvopastoral systems can be improved for overwintering migrants by increasing canopy cover to 25–40 % and incorporating emergent shade trees to produce a basal area of >5 m2/ha.

Keywords

Andes Cerulean Warbler Colombia Mixed-species flock Shade-coffee Silvopasture 

References

  1. Arbeláez-Cortés E, Rodríguez-Correa HA, Restrepo-Chica M (2011) Mixed bird flocks: patterns of activity and species composition in a region of the Central Andes of Colombia. Rev Mex Biodivers 82:639–651Google Scholar
  2. Armbrecht I, Perfecto I (2003) Litter-twig dwelling ant species richness and predation potential within a forest fragment and neighboring coffee plantations of contrasting habitat quality in Mexico. Agric Ecosyst Environ 97:107–115. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00128-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakermans MH, Vitz AC, Rodewald AD, Rengifo CG (2009) Migratory songbird use of shade coffee in the Venezuelan Andes with implications for conservation of cerulean warbler. Biol Conserv 142:2476–2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakermans MH, Rodewald AD, Vitz AC, Rengifo C (2012) Migratory bird use of shade coffee: the role of structural and floristic features. Agrofor Syst 85:85–94. doi:10.1007/s10457-011-9389-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beers TW, Dress PE, Wensel LC (1966) Aspect transformation in site productivity research. J Forest 64:691–692Google Scholar
  6. Bhagwat SA, Willis KJ, Birks HJB, Whittaker RJ (2008) Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity? Trends Ecol Evol 23:261–267. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.01.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Borkhataria RR, Collazo JA, Groom MJ (2012) Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico. Agric Ecosyst Environ 151:1–5. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cade BS, Noon BR (2003) A gentle introduction to quantile regression for ecologists. Front Ecol Environ 1:412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandler RB, King DI (2011) Habitat quality and habitat selection of golden-winged warblers in Costa Rica: an application of hierarchical models for open populations: hierarchical models of population dynamics. J Appl Ecol 48:1038–1047. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02001.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chará J, Murgueitio E (2005) The role of silvopastoral systems in the rehabilitation of Andean stream habitats. Livest Res Rural Dev 17(2). Art. # 20. http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd17/2/char17020.htm Google Scholar
  11. Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press, Mountain View, CAGoogle Scholar
  12. Colorado G (2011) Ecology and conservation of Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds and mixed species flocks in the Andes. Dissertation, The Ohio State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. Cruz-Angón A, Greenberg R (2005) Are epiphytes important for birds in coffee plantations? An experimental assessment. J Appl Ecol 42:150–159. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2004.00983.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cullen L, Lima JF, Beltrame TP et al (2004) Agroforestry buffer zones and stepping stones: tools for the conservation of fragmented landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes Island Press, Washington, pp 415–430Google Scholar
  15. De Beenhouwer M, Aerts R, Honnay O (2013) A global meta-analysis of the biodiversity and ecosystem service benefits of coffee and cacao agroforestry. Agric Ecosyst Environ 175:1–7. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2013.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dietsch TV, Perfecto I, Greenberg R (2007) Avian foraging behavior in two different types of coffee agroecosystem in Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 39:232–240. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00248.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Etter A, McAlpine C, Possingham H (2008) Historical patterns and drivers of landscape change in Colombia since 1500: a regionalized spatial approach. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 98:2–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gordon C, Manson R, Sundberg J, Cruz-Angón A (2007) Biodiversity, profitability, and vegetation structure in a Mexican coffee agroecosystem. Agric Ecosyst Environ 118:256–266. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenberg R, Bichier P, Angon AC, Reitsma R (1997a) Bird populations in shade and sun coffee plantations in central Guatemala. Conserv Biol 11:448–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenberg R, Bichier P, Sterling J (1997b) Bird populations in rustic and planted shade coffee plantations of eastern Chiapas, Mexico. Biotropica 29:501–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harvey CA, González Villalobos JA (2007) Agroforestry systems conserve species-rich but modified assemblages of tropical birds and bats. Biodivers Conserv 16:2257–2292. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9194-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harvey CA, Medina A, Sánchez DM et al (2006) Patterns of animal diversity in different forms of tree cover in agricultural landscapes. Ecol Appl 16:1986–1999CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Harvey CA, Komar O, Chazdon R et al (2008) Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot. Conserv Biol 22:8–15. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00863.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Holdridge LR (1967) Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San JoseGoogle Scholar
  25. Hutto RL (1980) Winter habitat distribution of migratory land birds in western Mexico, with special reference to small, foliage-gleaning insectivores. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp 181–203Google Scholar
  26. Johnson MD (2000) Effects of shade-tree species and crop structure on the winter arthropod and bird communities in a jamaican shade coffee plantation1. Biotropica 32:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson MD, Sherry TW (2001) Effects of food availability on the distribution of migratory warblers among habitats in Jamaica. J Anim Ecol 70:546–560. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2656.2001.00522.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson MD, Sherry TW, Holmes RT, Marra PP (2006) Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats. Conserv Biol 20:1433–1444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Jose S (2009) Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agrofor Syst 76:1–10. doi:10.1007/s10457-009-9229-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Komar O (2006) Priority Contribution. Ecology and conservation of birds in coffee plantations: a critical review. Bird Conserv Int 16:1. doi:10.1017/S0959270906000074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lambin EF, Geist HJ, Lepers E (2003) Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annu Rev Environ Resour 28:205–241. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.28.050302.105459 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lasky JR, Keitt TH (2012) The effect of spatial structure of pasture tree cover on avian frugivores in Eastern Amazonia. Biotropica 44:489–497. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00857.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maldonado-Coelho M, Marini MÂ (2004) Mixed-species bird flocks from Brazilian Atlantic forest: the effects of forest fragmentation and seasonality on their size, richness and stability. Biol Conserv 116:19–26. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00169-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matthysen E, Collet F, Cahill J (2008) Mixed flock composition and foraging behavior of insectivorous birds in undisturbed and disturbed fragments of high-Andean Polylepis woodland. Ornitol Neotrop 19:403–416Google Scholar
  35. McDermott ME, Rodewald AD (2014) Conservation value of silvopastures to Neotropical migrants in Andean forest flocks. Biol Conserv 175:140–147. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.04.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moguel P, Toledo VM (1999) Biodiversity conservation in traditional coffee systems of Mexico. Conserv Biol 13:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morse DH (1970) Ecological aspects of some mixed-species foraging flocks of birds. Ecol Monogr 40:119–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moynihan M (1979) Geographic variation in social behavior and in adaptations to competition among Andean birds. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  39. Murgueitio E, Calle Z, Uribe F et al (2011) Native trees and shrubs for the productive rehabilitation of tropical cattle ranching lands. For Ecol Manag 261:1654–1663. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.09.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Newell FL, Beachy TA, Rodewald AD et al (2014) Foraging behavior of migrant warblers in mixed-species flocks in Venezuelan shade coffee: interspecific differences, tree species selection, and effects of drought. J Field Ornithol 85:134–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Parrish JD, Petit LJ (1996) Value of shade coffee plantations for tropical birds: landscape and vegetation effects. In: Proceedings of the international conference of environmental enhancement through agricultureGoogle Scholar
  42. Perfecto I, Rice RA, Greenberg R, Van der Voort ME (1996) Shade coffee: a disappearing refuge for biodiversity. Bioscience 46:598–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Mas A, Pinto LS (2005) Biodiversity, yield, and shade coffee certification. Ecol Econ 54:435–446. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Petit, Lynch JF, Hutto RL et al (1995) Habitat use and conservation in the Neotropics. In: Martin TE, Finch DM (eds) Ecology and Management of Neotropical Migratory Birds, A Synthesis and Review of Critical Issues. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 145–197Google Scholar
  45. Petit LJ, Petit DR, Christian DG, Powell HDW (1999) Bird communities of natural and modified habitats in Panama. Ecography 22:292–304. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.1999.tb00505.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Philpott SM, Bichier P (2012) Effects of shade tree removal on birds in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico. Agric Ecosyst Environ 149:171–180. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2011.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Philpott SM, Bichier P, Rice R, Greenberg R (2007) Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs. Conserv Biol 21:975–985CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pomara LY, Cooper RJ, Petit LJ, Stouffer PC (2003) Mixed-species flocking and foraging behavior of four Neotropical warblers in Panamanian shade coffee fields and forests. Auk 120:1000–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Raman TRS (2006) Effects of habitat structure and adjacent habitats on birds in tropical rainforest fragments and shaded plantations in the Western Ghats, India. Biodivers Conserv 15:1577–1607. doi:10.1007/s10531-005-2352-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reitsma R, Parrish JD, McLarney W (2001) The role of cacao plantations in maintaining forest avian diversity in southeastern Costa Rica. Agrofor Syst 53:185–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rice RA, Greenberg R (2000) Cacao cultivation and the conservation of biological diversity. AMBIO 29:167–173Google Scholar
  52. Rice RA, Greenberg R (2004) Silvopastoral systems: ecological and socioeconomic benefits and migratory bird conservation. In: Schroth G, da Fonseca GAB, Harvey CA, Gascon C, Vasconcelos HL, Izac AMN (eds) Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical landscapes. Island Press, Washington DC, pp 453–472Google Scholar
  53. Roberts DL, Cooper RJ, Petit LJ (2000) Flock characteristics of ant-following birds in premontane moist forest and coffee agroecosystems. Ecol Appl 10:1414–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sáenz JC, Villatoro F, Ibrahim M et al (2006) Relación entre las comunidades de aves y la vegetación en agropaisajes dominados por la ganadería en Costa Rica, Nicaragua y Colombia. Agroforestería en las Américas 45:37–48Google Scholar
  55. Sekercioglu CH, Ehrlich PR, Daily GC et al (2002) Disappearance of insectivorous birds from tropical forest fragments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:263–267. doi:10.1073/pnas.012616199 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Slocum MG, Beckage B, Platt WJ et al (2010) Effect of climate on wildfire size: a cross-scale analysis. Ecosystems 13:828–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sridhar H, Sankar K (2008) Effects of habitat degradation on mixed-species bird flocks in Indian rain forests. J Trop Ecol. doi:10.1017/S0266467408004823 Google Scholar
  58. Sridhar H, Beauchamp G, Shanker K (2009) Why do birds participate in mixed-species foraging flocks? A large-scale synthesis. Anim Behav 78:337–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steffan-Dewenter I, Kessler M, Barkmann J et al (2007) From the Cover: tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:4973–4978. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608409104 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Tejeda-Cruz C, Sutherland WJ (2004) Bird responses to shade coffee production. Anim Conserv 7:169–179. doi:10.1017/S1367943004001258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tellería JL, Virgós E, Carbonell R et al (2001) Behavioural responses to changing landscapes: flock structure and anti-predator strategies of tits wintering in fragmented forests. Oikos 95:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thiollay J, Jullien M (1998) Flocking behaviour of foraging birds in a Neotropical rain forest and the antipredator defence hypothesis. Ibis 140:382–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Van Der Wal H, Peña-Álvarez B, Arriaga-Weiss SL, Hernández-Daumás S (2012) Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico. Wilson J Ornithol 124:558–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Molly E. McDermott
    • 1
  • Amanda D. Rodewald
    • 2
  • Stephen N. Matthews
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environment and Natural ResourcesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Cornell Lab of Ornithology and Department of Natural ResourcesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations