Skip to main content

Changes in soil properties and nematode population status under planted and natural fallows in land use systems of southern Cameroon

Abstract

Changes in soil properties and nematode population status under Flemingia macrophylla [(Willd.) Merrill], Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth, and natural bush fallows were assessed in three villages in southern Cameroon. In each village, experiments were set up in a 4–5 year-old bush fallow dominated by Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob and a more than 20 year-old secondary forest. Total aboveground biomass production of P. phaseoloides was 7.45 Mg ha−1, 4.2 times higher than F. macrophylla (1.78 Mg ha−1; P < 0.05). In two years (24 MAP), the soil bulk density under P. phaseoloides, F.macrophylla and the natural regrowth in both bush and forest land use systems decreased (P < 0.05). Within the same period, there was a general improvement in aggregate stability. The particle size distribution changed over 3 years (36 MAP), such that at 0–10 cm depth, the percent sand content had reduced whiles the percent clay content had increased under all the fallow systems in both bush and forest land use systems (LUSs). Soil N also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after cropping under all the fallow systems in both LUS. In contrast, soil organic carbon decreased, but the extent was lower under P. phaseoloides and F. macrophylla compared to the natural regrowth. Soil P also decreased after cropping under all the fallow systems in both LUS whereas decrease in Mg was only observed under P. phaseoloides. F. macrophylla had Mg content after cropping similar to the initial in both LUS. Soil contents of K and Ca were not significantly different over time under all the fallow systems. Comparing the initial Helicotylenchus multicinctus population to that at 12 MAP, both P. phaseoloides and F. macrophylla reduced density of H. multicinctus (P < 0.05). However, when the initial population density was compared to that at 24 MAP only under P. phaseoloides was the reduction maintained. The study concluded that the general improvement in the soil physical properties, impacted positively on the N and organic carbon contents which were sustained to a larger extent under the planted fallows than the natural regrowth. Furthermore, P. phaseoloides could be used as one component for the biological control of Helicotylenchus multicinctus, a phytopathogenic nematode.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Akobundu IO, Ekeleme F (2002) Weed seedbank characteristics of arable fields under different fallow management systems in the humid tropical zone of southeastern Nigeria. Agrofor Syst 54:161–170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amato M, Ladd JN (1992) Decomposition of 14C-labelled glucose and legume materials in soil: properties influencing the accumulation of organic residue C and microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem 24:455–464

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Anderson JM, Ingram JSI (1993) Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods, 2nd edn. CAB International, Aberystwyth, UK, p 221

    Google Scholar 

  4. Asare EO (1985) Effects of frequency and height of defoliation on forage yield and crude protein content of Flemingia macrophylla. Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress, Kyoto, Japan, pp 164–165

  5. Banful B, Hauser S, Ofori K, Kumaga F (2007) Weed biomass dynamics in planted fallow systems in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Agrofor Syst 71(1):49–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Blomme G, Swennen R, Tenkouano A (2002) The effect of soil bulk density on root and overall plant development in six banana varieties. Infomusa 11(2):38–40

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bongers T, Bongers M (1998) Functional diversity of nematodes. Appl Soil Ecol 10:239–251

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Budelman A, Siregar ME (1997) Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merrill. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG (eds) Auxiliary plants. PROSEA (Plant Resources of South–East Asia) No. 11. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp 144–147

    Google Scholar 

  9. Buondonno A, Rashad AA, Coppola E (1995) Comparing tests for soil fertility II. The hydrogen peroxide/sulfuric acid treatment as an alternative to the copper/selenium catalyzed digestion process for routine determination of soil nitrogen-Kjeldahl. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 26:1607–1619

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Cadet P, Pate E, N’Diaye-Faye N (2003) Nematode community changes and survival rates under natural fallow in the sudano-sahelian area of Senegal. Pedobiologia 47:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Carsky RJ, Becker M, Hauser S (2001) Mucuna cover crop fallow systems: potential and limitations. In: Sustaining Soil Fertility in West Africa. SSSA Special Publication no. 58, Madison, USA, pp 111–135

  12. Day PR (1965) Particle fractionation and particle-size analysis. In: Gee GW, Bauder JW (eds) Methods of soil analysis part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Agronomy Monograph, no. 9, pp 383–411

  13. Fogain R (1996) Screenhouse evaluation of Musa for susceptibility to Radopholus similis. In: Frison, EA, Horry, JP, De Waele, D (eds) Evaluation of plantains AAB and Diploid AA, AB and BB. Proceedings of the Workshop on New Frontiers in Resistance Breeding for Nematodes, Fusarium and Sigatoka, 2–5 October, 1995, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, INIBAP, Montpellier, France, pp 79–86

  14. Grant CD (1989) Soil structure and tensile strength in relation to the microtopography of soil fracture surfaces. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Soil Science, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, pp 256

  15. Hassink J, Matus FJ, Chenu C, Dalenberg JW (1997) Interactions between soil biota, soil organic matter and soil structure. Adv Agroecol 10:23–31

    Google Scholar 

  16. Heanes DL (1984) Determination of organic C in soils by an improved chromic acid digestion and Spectro-photometric procedure. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 15:1191–1213

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hoopers DJ (1990) Extraction and processing of plant and soil nematodes. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 45–68

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hulugalle NR, Ndi NJ (1993) Effects of no-tillage and alley cropping on soil properties and crop yields in a typic Kandiudult of southern Cameroon. Agrofor Syst 22:207–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hulugalle NR, Ndi NJ (1994) Changes in soil properties of a newly-cleared Ultisol due to establishment of hedgerow species in alley cropping systems. J Agric Sci (Cambridge) 122:435–443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hutton DG (1978) Influence of rainfall on some plantain nematodes in Jamaica. Nematropica 8:34–39

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kang BT, Shannon DA (2001) Agroforestry with focus on alley cropping. In: Sustaining soil fertility in West Africa. SSSA Special Publication no. 58, Madison, USA, pp 97–224

  22. Kang BT, Wilson GF, Spikens L (1981) Alley cropping maize (Zea mays L.) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam) in southern Nigeria. Plant Soil 63:165–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kang BT, Salako FK, Akobundu IO, Pleysier JL, Chianu JN (1997) Amelioration of a degraded Oxic Paleustalf by leguminous and natural fallows. Soil Use Manage 13:130–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kemper WD, Rosenau RC (1986) Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute, A (ed) Methods of soil analysis, Part 1, American Society of Agronomy Monograph 9, Madison, USA, pp 425–441

  25. Koutika L-S, Hauser S, Henrot J (2001) Soil organic matter assessment in natural regrowth, Pueraria phaseoloides and Mucuna pruriens fallow. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1095–1101

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Koutika L-S, Sanginga N, Vanlauwe B, Weise S (2002) Chemical properties and soil organic matter assessment in fallow systems in the forest margins benchmark. Soil Biol Biochem 34:757–765

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Koutika L-S, Ndango R, Hauser S (2004) Nutrient concentrations and NH4 +-N mineralization under different soil types and fallow forms in southern Cameroon. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167:591–595

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Ladd JN, Amato M, Oades JM (1985) Decomposition of plant material in Australian soils III. Residual organic and microbial biomass C and N from isotope labeled plant material and organic matter decomposition under field conditions. Aust J Soil Res 23:603–611

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Mapa RB, Gunasena HPM (1995) Effects of alley cropping on soil aggregate stability of a tropical alfisol. Agrofor Syst 32:237–245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Mehlich M (1984) Mehlich-3 soil test extractant: a modification of the Mehlich-2 extractant. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 15:1409–1416

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Nolte C, Weise S (1998) Screening herbaceous and shrub legumes for short planted fallows in maize systems. In: Short fallow systems to arrest resource degradation due to land-use intensification project report. Int Inst Trop Agric, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp 24–30

  33. Queneherve P (1989) Population of nematodes in soils under banana cv. Poyo in the Ivory Coast. 3. Seasonal dynamics of populations in mineral soil. Revue Nematol 12:149–160

    Google Scholar 

  34. Queneherve P, Drob F, Topart P (1995) Host status of some weeds to Meloidogyne spp., Helicotylenchus spp. and Rotylenchulus reniformis associated with vegetable cultivated in polytunnels in Martinique. Nematropica 25:149–157

    Google Scholar 

  35. Sanchez PA, Sheperd KD, Soule MJ, Place FM, Buresh RJ, Izac AM, Mokwunye AU, Kwesiga FR, Ndiritu CG, Woomer PL (1997) Soil fertility replenishment in Africa: an investment in natural resource capital. In: Buresh RJ, Sanchez PA, Calhoun F (eds) Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa. SSSA Special Publication no. 51, American Society of Agronomy; Madison, WI, USA, pp 1–46

  36. Sarah J-L (1989) Banana nematodes and their control in Africa. Nematropica 19:199–215

    Google Scholar 

  37. SAS Institute (1989) SAS/STAT User Guide, 4th edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA

  38. SAS Institute (1997) SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through release 6.12. Cary, NC, USA

  39. Schroth G, D’Angelo S, Teixeira W, Haag D, Lieberei R (2002) Conversion of secondary forest into agroforestry and monoculture plantations in Amazonia: consequences for biomass, litter and soil carbon stocks after 7 years. Forage Ecol Manage 163:131–150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Tarawali SA, Peters M, Schultze-Kraft R (1999) Forage legumes for sustainable agriculture and livestock production in sub-humid West Africa. International Livestock Research Institute, Project report ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya

    Google Scholar 

  41. Thenkabil PS (1999) Characterization of the alternative to slash-and-burn benchmark research area representing the Congolese rainforests of Africa using near-real-time SPOT HRV data. Int J Remote Sens 20:839–877

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Tian G, Kang BT, Brussaard L (1993) Mulching effect of plant residues with chemically contrasting compositions on maize growth and nutrient accumulation. Plant Soil 153:179–187

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Tian G, Kolawole GO, Salako FK, Kang BT (1999) An improved cover crop fallow system for sustainable management of low activity clay soils of the tropics. Soil Sci 164:671–682

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Tian G, Hauser S, Koutika L-S, Ishida F, Chianu JN (2001) Pueraria cover crop fallow systems: benefits and applicability. In: Sustaining soil fertility in West Africa. SSSA Special Publication no. 58, Madison, USA, pp 137–155

  45. Vanlauwe B, Aihou K, Aman S, Tossah BK, Diels J, Lyasse O, Hauser S, Sanginga N, Merckx R (2000) Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by maize as affected by particulate organic matter quality, soil characteristics and land use history for soils from the West African moist savanna zone. Biol Fertil Soils 30:440–449

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Vilardebo A, Guerout R (1976) Nematodes species in West Africa, Madagascar and Reunion with some comments on their biology. Nematropica 6:53–54

    Google Scholar 

  47. Weber GK, Robert ABC, Carsky R (1997) LEXSYS 2.1. Decision support for the integration of legumes into farming systems. International institute of tropical agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. Banful.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Banful, B., Hauser, S. Changes in soil properties and nematode population status under planted and natural fallows in land use systems of southern Cameroon. Agroforest Syst 82, 263–273 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-011-9394-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Soil properties
  • Nematodes
  • Planted fallows