Skip to main content

Effect of diet inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in tropical sheep

Abstract

Feed intake and digestibility were evaluated in sheep fed low quality Taiwan grass supplemented with Tithonia diversifolia. Four wether hair sheep were housed in metabolic cages and fed with either Control concentrate 20%, Tithonia 20, 35 or 50% in a Latin Square design. Adaptation and, feces and urine collection periods were 14 and 7 days, respectively. Feed intake was increased (P < 0.01) from 58.5 in control to 86.1 g/kg0.75 in sheep fed Tithonia. NDF intake and digestibility were affected by Tithonia level. Nitrogen intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increase in feces and urine excretion. N retention was similar (P > 0.1) among sheep fed Tithonia, but different (P < 0.05) from control. Inclusion of Tithonia foliage at 20% of the DM diet of hair sheep improved their intake of low quality Taiwan grass and nitrogen retention. Higher levels of Tithonia in the diet, however, increase nitrogen loss in feces and urine.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Alayón AJ (1996) Evaluación de métodos de siembra y del efecto de la inclusión de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud en dietas de heno de Cynodon nlemfuensis en ovinos pelibuey. Tesis de Maestría. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia-UADY. Mérida, Yucatán, México, p 129 (in Spanish)

  2. AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis, 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  3. Archibeque SL, Huntington GB, Burns JC (2001) Urea flux in beef steers: effects of forage species and nitrogen fertilization. J Anim Sci 79:1937–1943

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Dabiri N, Thonney ML (2004) Source and level of supplemental protein for growing lambs. J Anim Sci 82:3237–3244

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Del Curto T, Cochran RC, Harmon DL, Beharka AA, Jacque KA, Towne G, Vanzant ES (1990) Supplementation of dormant tallgrass-prairie forage: I. Influence of varying supplemental protein and (or) energy levels on forage utilization characteristics of beef steers in confinement. J Anim Sci 68:515–531

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Gacheru E, Rao MR (2001) Managing Striga infestation on maize using organic and inorganic nutrient sources in western Kenya. Int J Pest Manage 47(3):233–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Galloway DL, Goetsch AL, Forster LA Jr, Sun W, Johnson ZB (1991) Feed intake and digestion by Holstein steers fed warm or cool season grass hays with corn, dried molasses, or wheat middlings. J Dairy Sci 74:1038–1046

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Heldt JS, Cochran RC, Mathis CP, Woods BC, Olson KC, Titgemeyer EC, Nagaraja TG, Vanzant ES, Johnson DE (1999) Effects of level and source of carbohydrate and level of degradable intake protein on intake and digestion of low-quality tallgrass-prairie hay by beef steers. J Anim Sci 77:2846–2854

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Huntington G, Poore M, Hopkins B, Spears J (2001) Effect of ruminal protein degradability on growth and N metabolism in growing beef steers. J Anim Sci 79:533–541

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Ibrahim M, Villanueva C, Mora J (2005) Traditional and improved silvopastoral systems and their importance in sustainability of livestock farms. In: Mosquera-Losada MR (ed) Silvopastoralism and sustainable land management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 13–18

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  11. Jama B, Palm CA, Buresh RJ, Niang A, Gachengo C, Nziguheba G, Amadalo B (2000) Tithonia diversifolia as a green manure for soil fertility improvement in western Kenya A review. Agrofor Syst 49:201–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kayuki KC, Wortmann CS (2001) Plant materials for soil fertility management in subhumid tropical areas. Agron J 93:929–935

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Köster HH, Cochran RC, Titgemeyer EC, Vanzant ES, Abdelgadir I, St-Jean G (1996) Effect of increasing degradable intake protein on intake and digestion of low-quality, tallgrass-prarie forage by beef cows. J Anim Sci 74:2473–2481

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Kozloski GV, Bonnecarrére Sanchez LM, Cadorin RL Jr, Reffatti MV, Perez Neto D, Lima LD (2006) Intake and digestion by lambs of dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott) hay or hay supplemented with urea and different levels of cracked corn grain. Anim Feed Sci Technol 125:111–122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lintzenich BA, Vanzant ES, Cochran RC, Beaty JL, Brandt RT Jr, St Jean G (1995) Influence of processing supplemental alfalfa on intake and digestion of Dormant Bluestem-range forage by steer. J Anim Sci 73:1187–1195

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Mahecha L, Rosales M (2005) Valor nutricional del follaje de botón de oro Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray, en la producción animal en el trópico. In: Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol 17, issue 100 (in Spanish). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd17/9/mahe17100.htm. Retrieved 23 Feb 2006

  17. Mahecha L, Escobar JP, Suárez JF, Restrepo LF (2007) Tithonia diversifolia (hemsl.) Gray (botón de oro) como suplemento forrajero de vacas F1 (Holstein por Cebú). In: Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol 19, issue 16 (in Spanish). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/2/mahe19016.htm. Retrieved 23 Apr 23 2007

  18. Mathis CP, Cochran RC, Heldt JS, Woods BC, Abdelgadir IEO, Olson KC, Titgemeyer EC, Vanzant ES (2000) Effects of supplemental degradable intake protein on utilization of medium- to low-quality forages. J Anim Sci 78:224–232

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Mulligan FJ, Caffrey PJ, Rath M, Kenny MJ, O’Mara FP (2001) The effect of dietary protein content and hay intake level on the true and apparent digestibility of hay. Livest Prod Sci 68:41–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Murgueito E (2005) Silvopastoral systems in the neotropics. In: Mosquera-Losada MR (ed) Silvopastoralism and sustainable land management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 24–29

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  21. NRC (1985) Nutrient requirements of sheep, 6th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  22. Osuji PO, Nsahlai IV, Khalili H (1993) Feed evaluation. ILCA Manual 5. ILCA (International Livestock Centre for Africa), Addis Ababa

    Google Scholar 

  23. Pathoummalangsy, Preston (2008) Effects of supplementation with rumen fermentable carbohydrate and sources of ‘bypass’ protein on feed intake, digestibility and N retention in growing goats fed a basal diet of foliage of Tithonia diversifolia. In: Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol 20 (supplement). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd20/supplement/kham20076.htm. Retrieved 5 Jan 2010

  24. Patra AK, Sharma K, Dutta Narayan, Pattanaik AK (2003) Response of gravid does to partial replacement of dietary protein by a leaf meal mixture of Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Azadirachta indica. Anim Feed Sci Technol 109:171–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Rosales M (1996) In vitro assessment of the nutritive value of mixtures of leaves from tropical fodder trees. PhD thesis. Deparment of plant Sciences. Oxford, University. Oxford, UK, p 214

  26. Salisbury MW, Krehbiel CR, Ross TT, Schultz CL, Melton LL (2004) Effects of supplemental protein type on intake, nitrogen balance, and site, and extent of digestion in whiteface wethers consuming low-quality grass hay. J Anim Sci 82:3567–3576

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. SAS Institute (2000) Software SAS version 8, Nashville Enabled. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA

    Google Scholar 

  28. Shayo CM, Udén P (1999) Nutritional uniformity of neutral detergent solubles in some tropical browse leaf and pod diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 82:63–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Shigechi H, Koh J, Fujita Y, Matsumoto T, Bito Y, Ueda M, Satoh E, Fukuda H, Kondo A (2004) Direct production of ethanol from raw corn starch via fermentation by use of a novel surface-engineered yeast strain codisplaying glucoamylase and alpha-amylase. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:5037–5040

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Swanson KC, Caton JS, Redmer DA, Burke VI, Reynolds LP (2000) Influence of undegraded intake protein on intake, digestion, serum hormones and metabolites, and nitrogen balance in sheep. Small Rumin Res 35:225–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Swanson KC, Freetly C, Ferrell CL (2004) Nitrogen balance in lambs fed low-quality brome hay and infused with differing proportions of casein in the rumen and abomasums. J Anim Sci 82:502–507

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Tempelman RJ (2004) Experimental design and statistical methods for classical and bioequivalence hypothesis testing with an application to dairy nutrition studies. J Anim Sci 82:E162–E172

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Van Soest PJ (1994) Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, second ed. Cornell University Press, New York, NY, USA 476pp

    Google Scholar 

  34. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74:3583–3597

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Wambui CC, Abdulrazak SA, Noordin Q (2006) The effect of supplementing urea treated maize stover with Tithonia, Calliandra and Sesbania to growing goats. In: Livestock Research for Rural Development, vol 18, issue 64. http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/5/abdu18064.htm. Retrieved 1 Oct 2006

  36. Weder CE, Del Curto T, Svejcar T, Jaeger JR, Bailey RK (1999) Influence of Supplemental Alfalfa Quality on the Intake, Use, and Subsequent Performance of Beef Cattle Consuming Low-Quality Roughages. J Anim Sci 77:1266–1276

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Whitelaw FG, Milne JS, Orskov ER, Stansfield R, Franklin MF (1990) Urea metabolism in sheep given conventional feeds or nourished by intragastric infusion. Experimental Physiol 75:239–254

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Woodward A, Reed JD (1997) Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. J Anim Sci 75:1130–1139

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge Mrs. Susan Chanda and Dr. Esau Ruiz for helpful proof reading of this work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to José Roberto Sanginés-García.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ramírez-Rivera, U., Sanginés-García, J.R., Escobedo-Mex, J.G. et al. Effect of diet inclusion of Tithonia diversifolia on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in tropical sheep. Agroforest Syst 80, 295–302 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9320-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Tithonia diversifolia
  • Feed intake
  • Digestibility
  • Nitrogen balance