Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 73, Issue 1, pp 77–87 | Cite as

Characterization of tree-to-tree variation in morphological, nutritional and medicinal properties of Canarium indicum nuts

  • Roger LeakeyEmail author
  • Steve Fuller
  • Tony Treloar
  • Lesley Stevenson
  • Denise Hunter
  • Tio Nevenimo
  • Jeffrey Binifa
  • John Moxon


As part of a feasibility study of the commercialization potential of C. indicum nuts as Agroforestry Tree Products in Papua New Guinea, preliminary characterization studies have examined the tree-to-tree variation in morphological traits (nut and kernel mass and kernel:nut ratio), as well as nutritional (carbohydrate, fat, protein, sodium, vitamin E) and medicinal traits (anti-oxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity and phenolic content) of kernels from 18 to 72 trees in a small number of different villages of Papua New Guinea (East New Britain Province). There was continuous variation in these traits indicating opportunities for multiple trait cultivar development targeted at food and pharmaceutical markets. Certain traits, for example anti-inflammatory activity, in which tree-to-tree variation was highly significant, present greater opportunities than others, such as saturated:unsaturated fatty acid ratio. This intraspecific variation was greater within populations than between populations. The data presented has allowed the development of a strategy to domesticate C. indicum for cultivation in homegardens and cocoa–coconut agroforests, using a participatory approach aimed at the production of agroforestry tree products (AFTPs) to empower small-holders and enhance their livelihoods and income.


Kernel:nut ratio Oil content and fatty acid profile Tocopherol content (vitamin E) Anti-oxidant and phenolic content Anti-inflammatory activity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Leakey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Steve Fuller
    • 2
  • Tony Treloar
    • 2
  • Lesley Stevenson
    • 3
  • Denise Hunter
    • 3
  • Tio Nevenimo
    • 4
  • Jeffrey Binifa
    • 4
  • John Moxon
    • 4
  1. 1.Agroforestry and Novel Crops Unit, School of Tropical BiologyJames Cook UniversityCairnsAustralia
  2. 2.DPI&FHamiltonAustralia
  3. 3.Australian Centre for Complementary Medicine Education and Research, Centre for Phytochemistry and PharmacologySouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  4. 4.Lowlands Agricultural Experiment StationNational Agricultural Research InstituteKokopo, KeravatPapua New Guinea

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