Advertisement

Aerobiologia

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 425–435 | Cite as

Science questions and knowledge gaps to study microbial transport and survival in Asian and African dust plumes reaching North America

  • Andrew C. Schuerger
  • David J. Smith
  • Dale W. Griffin
  • Daniel A. Jaffe
  • Boris Wawrik
  • Susannah M. Burrows
  • Brent C. Christner
  • Cristina Gonzalez-Martin
  • Erin K. Lipp
  • David G. Schmale III
  • Hongbin Yu
Original Paper

Abstract

The Sahara in North Africa and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in Asia are the primary sources of mobilized dust in the atmosphere, with regional or global airborne transport estimated at 2 to 5 billion tonnes per year. Annual Asian dust plumes take about 7 to 10 d to cross the Pacific Ocean, and often reach the northwest USA between late February and May. In contrast, the peak season for the movement of African dust storms to the southeastern USA is typically June to August, and dust plumes take about 5 to 7 d to reach Florida. Although studies have documented that a wide range of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses in dust plumes reach the USA each year, little is known about temporal and spatial variability in the microbial biodiversity in transoceanic dust plumes, or the effect on the deposition environments. A scoping study (called the Transoceanic Aerobiology Biodiversity Study) was conducted to develop field-based campaigns centered on examining the abundance, diversity, survival, and impact of microorganisms in transoceanic dust plumes arriving in the continental USA from Asia and Africa. This effort identified Science Questions (SQs) and Knowledge Gaps (KGs) that are highly relevant toward an understanding of the microbial diversity, transport, survival, and dispersal in transoceanic dusts. Science Questions were defined as broad science topics in transoceanic dust plume microbiology that were underexplored by the aerobiology community. Knowledge Gaps were defined as specific project-level research questions for each SQ that represented important topics in the study of transoceanic aerobiology.

Keywords

Transoceanic dust Aerobiology Dust transport Asian dust African dust 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following individuals who provided feedback on the Science Questions and Knowledge Gaps preliminary white paper during an external review cycle in the Spring of 2017: Pierre Amato, Christina Kellogg, Shane Ross, Nobuyasu Yamaguchi, Juan Diaz-Gonzalez, Elena Gonzalez-Toril, Lorraine Remer, Natalie Mahowald, Chris Munday, Peter Convey, Gwynneth Matcher, Byron Adams, David Pearce, Cassandra Gaston, and two anonymous reviewers. We thank Robert Levy and Pawan Gupta of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for helping with processing MODIS aerosol data in Fig. 1. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the US government. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US government and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

Authors contribution

The study was initially conceived by AS, DJS, and DG. AS coordinated all aspects of the work, including preparation of the original draft of the manuscript, compiling all editorial suggestions by the coauthors and external reviewers (see Acknowledgments section), and the preparation of the figures. HY assisted in compiling data and creating the graphics in Figs. 1 and 2. All coauthors contributed to the creation and editing of individual Science Questions and Knowledge Gaps through a series of telecons, email exchanges, and two TABS workshops held in Key West, FL (December 2016), and Bend, OR (April 2017).

Funding

The project was supported by a scoping study Grant from NASA’s Biodiversity Office (Grant #NNX16AQ38G). Partial support to BC was provided by a National Science Foundation grant from the Division of Environmental Biology (1241161 and 1643288). Partial support to SB was funded by the Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate Program Development Funds at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. DG was partially supported by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Environmental Health Toxic Substances Hydrology and Contaminate Biology Programs.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All coauthors have confirmed via emails to the corresponding author that there were no conflicts of interest in participating in the TABS Scoping Study; the TABS workshops in Key West, FL, and Bend, OR; nor the preparation of the manuscript.

References

  1. Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant pathology (5th ed.). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bishop, J. K. B., Davis, R. E., & Sherman, J. T. (2002). Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific. Science, 298, 817–821.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1074961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chiapello, I., Prospero, J. M., Herman, J. R., & Hsu, N. C. (1999). Detection of mineral dust over the North Atlantic Ocean and Africa with the Nimbus TOMS. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104(D8), 9277–9291.  https://doi.org/10.1029/1998jd200083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chin, M., Diehl, T., Ginoux, P., & Malm, W. C. (2007). Intercontinental transport of pollution and dust aerosols: Implications for regional air quality. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 7, 5501–5517.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-5501-2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Deckker, P., Abed, R., de Beer, D., Hinrichs, K., O’Loingsigh, T., Schefu, E., et al. (2008). Geochemical and microbiological fingerprinting of airborne dust that fell in Canberra, Australia, in October 2002. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9(12), Q12Q10.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gc002091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diehl, R. H. (2013). The airspace is habitat. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 28, 377–379.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2013.02.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gonzalez-Martin, C., Teigell-Perez, N., Valladares, B., & Griffin, D. W. (2014). The global dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms by dust storms and its relevance to agriculture. Advances in Agronomy, 127, 1–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800131-8.00001-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goudie, A. S., & Middleton, N. J. (2001). Saharan dust storms: Nature and consequences. Earth-Science Reviews, 56, 179–204.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-8252(01),00067-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Griffin, D. W. (2007). Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 20, 459–477.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00039-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Griffin, D. W., Garrison, V. H., Herman, J. R., & Shinn, E. A. (2001). African desert dust in the Caribbean atmosphere: Microbiology and public health. Aerobiologia, 17(3), 203–213.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011868218901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Griffin, D. W., Kellogg, C. A., Garrison, V. H., Lisle, J. T., Borden, T. C., & Shinn, E. A. (2003). African dust in the Caribbean atmosphere. Aerobiologia, 19, 143–157.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011868218901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Griffin, D. W., Westphal, D. L., & Gray, M. A. (2006). Airborne microorganisms in the African desert dust corridor over the mid-Atlantic ridge, Ocean Drilling Program, Leg 209. Aerobiologia, 22(3), 211–226.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10453-006-9033-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Husar, R. B., Tratt, D. M., Schichtel, B. A., Falke, S. R., Li, F., Jaffe, D., et al. (2001). Asian dust events of April 1998. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106, 18317–18330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Isard, S. A., Gage, S. H., Comtois, P., & Russo, J. M. (2005). Principles of the atmospheric pathway for invasive species applied to soybean rust. BioScience, 55(10), 851–860.  https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jaffe, D. A., Prestbo, E., Swartzendruber, P., Weiss-Penzias, P., Kato, S., Takami, S., et al. (2005). Export of atmospheric mercury from Asia. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 3029–3038.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.01.030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee, S., Choi, B., Yi, S.-M., & Ko, G. (2009). Characterization of microbial community during Asian dust events in Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 5308–5314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moulin, C., Lambert, C. E., Dulac, F., & Dayan, U. (1997). Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature, 38, 691–694.  https://doi.org/10.1038/42679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Perkins, S. (2001). Dust, the thermostat: How tiny airborne particles manipulate global climate. Science News, 160(13), 200–202.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4012776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Price, H. U., Jaffe, D. A., Doskey, P. V., McKendry, I., & Anderson, T. L. (2003). Vertical profiles of O3, aerosols, CO and NMHCs in the Northeast Pacific during the Trace-P and ACE-Asia experiments. Journal Geophysical Research, 108(D18), 8575.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Prospero, J. M. (1999). Long-term measurements of the transport of African mineral dust to the southeastern United States: Implications for regional air quality. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104(D13), 15917–15927.  https://doi.org/10.1029/199jd900072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Prospero, J. M., Collard, F.-X., Molinie, J., & Jeannot, A. (2014). Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on air quality and the environment. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29, 757–773.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GB004802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reche, I., D’Orta, G., Mladenov, N., Winget, D. M., & Suttle, C. A. (2018). Deposition rates of viruses and bacteria above the atmospheric boundary layer. The ISME Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-017-0042-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rogers, L. A., & Meier, F. C. (1936). The collection of microorganisms above 36,000 feet. In: US Army Air Corps Stratosphere Flight of 1935 in Balloon Explorer II. Technical Papers (pp. 146–151). Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.Google Scholar
  24. Rummel, J. D., Beaty, D. W., Jones, M. A., Bakermans, C., Barlow, N. G., Boston, P. J., et al. (2014). A new analysis of Mars “Special Regions”: Findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions science analysis group (SR-SAG2). Astrobiology, 14, 887–968.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2014.1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schmale, D. G., & Ross, S. D. (2015). Highways in the sky: Scales of atmospheric transport of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 53, 591–611.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-115942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schuerger, A. C., & Nicholson, W. L. (2016). Twenty species of hypobarophilic bacteria recovered from diverse soils exhibit growth under simulated martian conditions at 0.7 kPa. Astrobiology, 16(12), 964–976.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2016.1587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schuerger, A. C., Ulrich, R., Berry, B. J., & Nicholson, W. L. (2013). Growth of Serratia liquefaciens under 7 mbar, 0 °C, and CO2-enriched anoxic atmospheres. Astrobiology, 13, 115–131.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2011.0811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shinn, E. A., Griffin, D. W., & Seba, D. B. (2003). Atmospheric transport of mold spores in clouds of desert dust. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, 58, 498–504.Google Scholar
  29. Singh, R. P., Hodson, D. P., Huerta-Espino, J., Jin, Y., Bhavani, S., Njau, P., et al. (2011). The emergence of Ug99 races of the stem rust fungus is a threat to world wheat production. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 49, 465–481.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith, D. J. (2013). Microbes in the upper atmosphere and unique opportunities for astrobiology research. Astrobiology, 13(10), 981–990.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2013.1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith, D. J., Timonen, H. J., Jaffe, D. A., Griffin, D. W., Birmele, M. N., Perry, K., et al. (2013). Intercontinental dispersal of bacteria and archaea in transpacific winds. Applied and Environment Microbiology, 79(4), 1134–1139.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03029-12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun, J., Zhang, M., & Liu, T. (2001). Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960–1999: Relations to source area and climate. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D10), 10325–10333.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jd900665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Swap, R., Garstang, M., Greco, S., Talbot, R., & Kallberg, P. (1992). Saharan dust in the Amazon Basin. Tellus, 44, 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Uno, I., Eguchi, K., Yumimoto, K., Takemura, T., Shimizu, A., Uematsu, M., et al. (2009). Asian dust transported one full circuit around the globe. Nature Geoscience, 2, 557–560.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weir-Brush, J. R., Garrison, V. H., Smith, G. W., & Shinn, E. A. (2004). The relationship between gorgonian coral (Cnidaria: Gorgonacea) diseases and African dust storms. Aerobiologia, 20, 119–126.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AERO.0000032949.14023.3a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Westrich, J. R., Ebling, A. M., Landing, W. M., Joyner, J. L., Kemp, K. M., Griffin, D. W., et al. (2016). Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 113(21), 5964–5969.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518080113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xiao, C., Kang, S. C., Qin, D., Yao, T. D., & Ren, J. W. (2002). Transport of atmospheric impurities over the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau as shown by snow chemistry. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 231–239.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-9120(01),00065-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu, H., Remer, L. A., Kahn, R. A., Chin, M., & Zhang, Y. (2013). Satellite perspective of aerosol intercontinental transport: From qualitative tracking to quantitative characterization. Atmospheric Research, 124, 73–100.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.12.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu, H. B., Chin, M., Bian, H., Yuan, T., Prospero, J. M., Omar, A. H., et al. (2015a). Quantification of trans-Atlantic dust transport from seven-year (2007–2013) record of CALIPSO lidar measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 159, 232–249.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.res.2014.12.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yu, H. B., Chin, M., Yuan, T., Bian, H., Remer, L. A., Prospero, J. M., et al. (2015b). The fertilizing role of African dust in the Amazon rainforest: A first multiyear assessment based on data from cloud-aerosol Lidar and infrared pathfinder satellite observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 1984–1991.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL063040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yu, H. B., Remer, L. A., Chin, M., Bian, H. S., Tan, Q., Yuan, T. L., et al. (2012). Aerosols from overseas rival domestic emissions over North America. Science, 337, 566–569.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1217576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang, X. Y., Gong, S. L., Zhao, T. L., Arimoto, R., Wang, Y. Q., & Zhou, Z. J. (2003). Sources of Asian dust and role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2272.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL018206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew C. Schuerger
    • 1
  • David J. Smith
    • 2
  • Dale W. Griffin
    • 3
  • Daniel A. Jaffe
    • 4
  • Boris Wawrik
    • 5
  • Susannah M. Burrows
    • 6
  • Brent C. Christner
    • 7
  • Cristina Gonzalez-Martin
    • 8
  • Erin K. Lipp
    • 9
  • David G. Schmale III
    • 10
  • Hongbin Yu
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of FloridaMerritt IslandUSA
  2. 2.NASA, Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA
  3. 3.US Geological SurveySt. PetersburgUSA
  4. 4.University of WashingtonBothellUSA
  5. 5.University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  6. 6.Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryRichlandUSA
  7. 7.Department of Microbiology and Cell ScienceUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  8. 8.University of La LagunaSan Cristóbal de La LagunaSpain
  9. 9.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  10. 10.Virginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  11. 11.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA

Personalised recommendations