Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 261–271

Highly variable, unpredictable activity patterns in invasive, but not native amphipod species

  • David Bierbach
  • Kate L. Laskowski
  • Anna-Lena Brandt
  • Wei Chen
  • Jonas Jourdan
  • Bruno Streit
  • Martin Plath

DOI: 10.1007/s10452-016-9573-4

Cite this article as:
Bierbach, D., Laskowski, K.L., Brandt, AL. et al. Aquat Ecol (2016) 50: 261. doi:10.1007/s10452-016-9573-4


Behavioral differences between native and introduced species may contribute to the invasiveness of certain species. This includes differences at the species level, consistent variation among individuals (“personality”) and within-individual variation (e.g., behavioral plasticity). Here, we investigated swimming activity of individuals from four different amphipod species occurring in the river Rhine system, three of which were native or naturalized (>100 years present) while one is a recent invader (Dikerogammarus villosus, <25 years present). At the species level, D. villosus did not show higher average swimming activity than the three non-invasive species. However, the non-invasive species, on average, changed their behavior predictably over the course of the experiment (“average behavioral plasticity”), while D. villosus did not exhibit any consistent change in activity. At the individual level, D. villosus exhibited greater among- and within-individual variation in activity levels than all non-invasive species. The non-invasive species further showed significant individual differences in plasticity, that is, individuals of these species differed consistently in how they changed their activity over time. The high within-individual variation in D. villosus translated into a lack of consistent individual differences in plasticity in this species. We hypothesize that the highly variable and unpredictable patterns of individual activity variation in D. villosus might help this successful invader to cope with new environmental conditions encountered in the river Rhine system.


Behavioral plasticity Dikerogammarus villosus Gammarus pulex Animal personality Invasion 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Leibniz Association
  • SAW-2013-IGB-2
  • SAW-2013-IGB-2
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
  • LA3778/1-1

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Ecology of FishesLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland FisheriesBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and EvolutionJ.W. Goethe University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)Frankfurt am MainGermany
  4. 4.College of Animal Science and TechnologyNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China

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