Aquatic Ecology

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 273–297 | Cite as

Greening of the coasts: a review of the Perna viridis success story

  • S. RajagopalEmail author
  • V.P. Venugopalan
  • G. van der Velde
  • H.A. Jenner


The green mussel Perna viridis has been receiving a lot of attention from workers working in the research areas of intertidal ecology, aquaculture, pollution monitoring, biofouling, zoogeography and invasion biology. P. viridis is a remarkable species in terms of its ability to reach very high biomass levels, to withstand environmental fluctuations, to concentrate a variety of organic and inorganic environmental pollutants, to colonise artificial marine habitats and to invade new geographic territories. This review collates data available on salient aspects of the distribution, biology and ecology of P. viridis. It is argued that the remarkable success of P. viridis as an invasive species basically stems from its long larval duration, fast growth rate, high fecundity, early maturity, high productivity and ability to withstand fluctuating environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water turbidity and pollutants). Relevant aspects of the data are compared with the data available for a similar species Perna perna, which too is an invasive species, but to a more limited extent.


Biofouling Green mussels Growth rate Invasion Perna viridis Physiology Reproduction Review 


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We thank J. Goud, Naturalis Museum, Leiden for kindly providing excellent photographs of various species of Perna. This is publication number 395 of the Centre of Wetland Ecology.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Rajagopal
    • 1
    Email author
  • V.P. Venugopalan
    • 2
  • G. van der Velde
    • 1
  • H.A. Jenner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Animal Ecology and Ecophysiology, Institute for Water and Wetland ResearchRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry DivisionBARC FacilitiesKalpakkamIndia
  3. 3.KEMA Power Generation and SustainablesArnhemThe Netherlands

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