, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 343–351 | Cite as

Na+/Cu2+ ion exchange equilibrium on Zeolite A: a thermodynamic study

  • St. PerişanuEmail author
  • Ana-Maria Oancea


The ion exchange isotherms at 302 K for Na+/Cu2+ and Cu2+/Na+ on zeolite A were determined for six total equivalent concentrations of the external solution, in the range 0.05–2.1 eq/L. Interpolated points from the curves fitted with different isotherms were used in the calculation of the selectivity coefficients. The activity coefficients in the external solution were calculated by means of the Pitzer model. Thermodynamic equilibrium constant values corresponding to different total concentrations of the external solution have been obtained investigating the reaction from both sides. The method of Gaines and Thomas, revised by Soldatov, based on the dependence of the normalized Kielland selectivity quotients on the copper ionic fraction in the zeolite was used in order to obtain the thermodynamic equilibrium constant value. The significance of the thermodynamic equilibrium constant and the reversibility of the process were analyzed, as well as the influence of the non-ideality of the zeolite and solution phases.


Ion exchange Equilibrium constant Adsorption isotherm Zeolite A 

List of symbols


Coefficient in isotherm equations, thermodynamic activity in solution

\( \bar{a} \)

Thermodynamic activity in zeolite


Coefficient in isotherm equations


Coefficient in isotherm equation (Keller)


Debye–Hückel term, in the equation for the activity coefficient




R-squared coefficient


Ionic fraction in solution

\( \bar{x} \)

Ionic fraction in zeolite


Number of elementary charges of an ion


Second virial coefficient in the Debye equation for activity coeffiecients


Third virial coefficient in the Debye equation for activity coeffiecients


Test value for errors


Thermodynamic equilibrium constant

\( \tilde{K} \)

Corrected selectivity quotient


Activity coefficient in solution


Activity coefficient in zeolite


Number of ions in an electrolyte



Index for anion


Index for cation


Index for ion


A certain cation


A certain anion


Mean ionic


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General ChemistryUniversity “Politehnica” of BucharestBucharestRomania
  2. 2.Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and ElectrochemistryUniversity “Politehnica” of BucharestBucharestRomania

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