Skip to main content
Log in

Activated carbon fibers for efficient VOC removal from diluted streams: the role of surface functionalities

  • Published:
Adsorption Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The effect of surface functionalities, specific surface area and pore size of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the adsorption of toluene and acetaldehyde, two volatile organic compounds (VOC), at low concentrations (~80 ppmv) and short contact time (20 ms) has been studied. Two different types of ACFs characterized by low temperature N2 adsorption: ultramicroporous (d pore  < 1 nm) and supermicroporous (d pore  ~ 1–2 nm) were tested. Both ACFs were effective for the removal of toluene attaining the adsorption capacity as large as 51 wt%. The surface chemistry of ACFs (O-containing functional groups) was characterized by temperature-programmed desorption monitoring the CO/CO2 evolved. Oxidative treatment of ACFs by nitric acid increased the surface concentration of O-groups. This resulted in lower adsorption capacity towards toluene but higher one towards acetaldehyde. This result was rationalized based on different type of VOC interactions with the carbon surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Almazan-Almazan, M.C., Perez-Mendoza, M., Fernandez-Morales, I., Domingo-Garcia, M., Lopez-Garzon, F.J., Martinez-Alonso, A., Suarez-Garcia, F., Tascon, J.M.D.: Narrow microporosity characterization in polyaramid-derived carbons by adsorption of N2, CO2 and organic vapours. In: Kaskel, S., Llewellyn, P., Rodriguez-Reinoso, F., Seaton, N.A. (eds.) Characterisation of Porous Solids Viii. Royal Society of Chemistry Special Publications, vol. 318, pp. 159–166. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  • Brunauer, S., Emmett, P.H., Teller, E.: Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 60, 309–319 (1938)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bulushev, D.A., Yuranov, I., Suvorova, E.I., Buffat, P.A., Kiwi-Minsker, L.: Highly dispersed gold on activated carbon fibers for low-temperature CO oxidation. J. Catal. 224(1), 8–17 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cal, M.P., Rood, M.J., Larson, S.M.: Gas phase adsorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor on activated carbon cloth. Energy Fuels 11(2), 311–315 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carrott, P.J.M., Roberts, R.A., Sing, K.S.W.: Adsorption of nitrogen by porous and nonporous carbons. Carbon 25(1), 59–68 (1987)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Choung, J.H., Lee, Y.W., Choi, D.K., Kim, S.H.: Adsorption equilibria of toluene on polymeric adsorbents. J. Chem. Eng. Data 46(4), 954–958 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Das, D., Gaur, V., Verma, N.: Removal of volatile organic compound by activated carbon fiber. Carbon 42(14), 2949–2962 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Datka, J.: Adsoprtion of benzene and toluene on y-zeolites studied by infrared-spectroscopy. J. Chem. Soc. 77, 511–517 (1981)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dimotakis, E.D., Cal, M.P., Economy, J., Rood, M.J., Larson, S.M.: Chemically treated activated carbon cloths for removal of volatile organic carbons from gas streams—evidence for enhanced physical adsorption. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29(7), 1876–1880 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El-Sayed, Y., Bandosz, T.J.: A study of acetaldehyde adsorption on activated carbons. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 242(1), 44–51 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Figueiredo, J.L., Pereira, M.F.R., Freitas, M.M.A., Orfao, J.J.M.: Modification of the surface chemistry of activated carbons. Carbon 37(9), 1379–1389 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Foster, K.L., Fuerman, R.G., Economy, J., Larson, S.M., Rood, M.J.: Adsorption characteristics of trace volatile organic-compounds in gas streams onto activated carbon-fibers. Chem. Mater. 4(5), 1068–1073 (1992)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fournel, L., Mocho, P., Brown, R., Le Cloirec, P.: Modeling breakthrough curves of volatile organic compounds on activated carbon fibers. Adsorpt. 16(3), 147–153 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hayashi, T., Kumita, M., Otani, Y.: Degradation of acetaldehyde adsorption performance of impregnated activated carbons. Kag. Kog. Ronbunshu 32(1), 72–78 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hernandez, M.A., Velasco, J.A., Asomoza, M., Solis, S., Rojas, F., Lara, V.H.: Adsorption of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene on microporous SiO2. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43(7), 1779–1787 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, Q.L., Vinh-Thang, H., Malekian, A., Eic, M., Trong-On, D., Kaliaguine, S.: Adsorption of n-heptane, toluene and o-xylene on mesoporous UL-ZSM5 materials. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 87(3), 224–234 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li, X.Y., Zhu, Z.R., Zhao, Q.D., Wang, L.: Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over ZnAl2O4 prepared by different methods: a comparative study. J. Hazard. Mater. 186(2–3), 2089–2096 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lillo-Rodenas, M.A., Cazorla-Amoros, D., Linares-Solano, A.: Behaviour of activated carbons with different pore size distributions and surface oxygen groups for benzene and toluene adsorption at low concentrations. Carbon 43(8), 1758–1767 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lillo-Rodenas, M.A., Cazorla-Amoros, D., Linares-Solano, A.: Benzene and toluene adsorption at low concentration on activated carbon fibres. Adsorpt. 17(3), 473–481 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mangun, C.L., Daley, M.A., Braatz, R.D., Economy, J.: Effect of pore size on adsorption of hydrocarbons in phenolic-based activated carbon fibers. Carbon 36(1–2), 123–129 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mo, J.H., Zhang, Y.P., Xu, Q.J., Lamson, J.J., Zhao, R.Y.: Photocatalytic purification of volatile organic compounds in indoor air: a literature review. Atmos. Environ. 43(14), 2229–2246 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mohan, N., Kannan, G.K., Upendra, S., Subha, R., Kumar, N.S.: Breakthrough of toluene vapours in granular activated carbon filled packed bed reactor. J. Hazard. Mater. 168(2–3), 777–781 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Okubo, M., Yamamoto, T., Kuroki, T., Fukumoto, H.: Electric air cleaner composed of nonthermal plasma reactor and electrostatic precipitator. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 37(5), 1505–1511 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Park, K.H., Shim, W.G., Shon, H.K., Lee, S.G., Ngo, H.H., Vigneswaran, S., Moon, H.: Adsorption characteristics of acetaldehyde on activated carbons prepared from corn-based biomass precursor. Sep. Sci. Technol. 45(8), 1084–1091 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Park, S.W., Choi, B.S., Lee, J.W.: Breakthrough data analysis of adsorption of toluene vapor in a fixed-bed of granular activated carbon. Sep. Sci. Technol. 42(10), 2221–2233 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pei, J., Zhang, J.S.S.: Determination of adsorption isotherm and diffusion coefficient of toluene on activated carbon at low concentrations. Build. Environ. 48, 66–76 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piccot, S.D., Watson, J.J., Jones, J.W.: A global inventory of volatile organic-compound emissions from anthropogenic sources. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 97(D9), 9897–9912 (1992)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Popescu, M., Joly, J.P., Carre, J., Danatoiu, C.: Dynamical adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption of VOCs (toluene, butyl acetate and butanol) on activated carbons. Carbon 41(4), 739–748 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pradhan, B.K., Sandle, N.K.: Effect of different oxidizing agent treatments on the surface properties of activated carbons. Carbon 37(8), 1323–1332 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Romero-Anaya, A.J., Lillo-Rodenas, M.A., Linares-Solano, A.: Spherical activated carbons for low concentration toluene adsorption. Carbon 48(9), 2625–2633 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rouquerol, F., Rouquerol, J., Sing, K.S.W.: Adsorption by Powders and Porous Solids : Principles, Methodology and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruddy, E.N., Carroll, L.A.: Select the best VOC control strategy. Chem. Eng. Prog. 89(7), 28–35 (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruhl, M.J.: Recover VOCs via adsorption on activated carbon. Chem. Eng. Prog. 89(7), 37–41 (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  • Salame, I.I., Bandosz, T.J.: Study of water adsorption on activated carbons with different degrees of surface oxidation. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 210(2), 367–374 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sing, K.S.W.: Empirical method for analysis of adsorption isotherms. Chem. Ind. 44, 1520 (1968)

    Google Scholar 

  • Sing, K.S.W., Everett, D.H., Haul, R.A.W., Moscou, L., Pierotti, R.A., Rouquerol, J., Siemieniewska, T.: Reporting physisorption data for gas solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface-area and porosity (recommendations 1984). Pure Appl. Chem. 57(4), 603–619 (1985)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh, K.P., Mohan, D., Tandon, G.S., Gupta, G.S.D.: Vapor-phase adsorption of hexane and benzene on activated carbon fabric cloth: equilibria and rate studies. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41(10), 2480–2486 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tamaru, K.: Adsoprtion measurements during surface catalyis. Adv. Catal. 15, 65–96 (1964)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tancrede, M., Wilson, R., Zeise, L., Crouch, E.A.C.: The carcinogenic risk of some organic vapors indoors—a theoretical survey. Atmos. Environ. 21(10), 2187–2205 (1987)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, C., Hauffe, K.: Examinations of the stationary condition of catalysts in heterogenous reactions I. Zeitschrift Fur Elektrochemie Und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie 44, 172–178 (1938)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner, C., Hauffe, K.: Analyses concerning the stationary position on catalysts in heterogenous reactions II. Zeitschrift Fur Elektrochemie Und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie 45, 409–425 (1939)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu, C.F., Wu, S.Y., Wu, Y.H., Cullen, A.C., Larson, T.V., Williamson, J., Liu, L.J.S.: Cancer risk assessment of selected hazardous air pollutants in Seattle. Environ. Int. 35(3), 516–522 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Research described in this article was supported by Philip Morris International.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lioubov Kiwi-Minsker.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Baur, G.B., Beswick, O., Spring, J. et al. Activated carbon fibers for efficient VOC removal from diluted streams: the role of surface functionalities. Adsorption 21, 255–264 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-015-9667-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10450-015-9667-7

Keywords

Navigation