Skip to main content

A Preliminary Validation of the Youth Over- and Under-Control (YOU-C) Screening Measure with a Community Sample

Abstract

Counselling practice has been supported by the development and use of interventions that are situated around overcontrol (OC) and under-control (UC) personality characteristics. Although related measures are currently available for young children (Gilbert et al., 2020a) and adults (Seretis, 2017), the advancement of counselling practice and related research across international samples can be enhanced through the development and validation of a measure suitable for use with older children and adolescents. We implemented a cross-sectional psychometric validation with 438 young people (Mage = 13.96, SD = 1.59) in south-east London which resulted in preliminary evidence for the Youth Over- and Under-Control (YOU-C) measure, 2-factor solution represented by Overcontrol (14 items) and Under-Control (11 items) subscales that accounted for 33.01% of variance among scores. Reliability estimates indicted suitability for basic research purposes, but not clinical decision-making activities. No statistically significant differences were identified based on gender or age.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Authors.

  • Asendorpf, J. B., & van Aken, M. A. (1999). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality prototypes in childhood: Replicability, predictive power, and the trait-type issue. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(4), 815–832. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.77.4.815

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Balkin, R. S. (2017). Evaluating evidence regarding relationships with criteria. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 264–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1336928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bardhoshi, G., & Erford, B. T. (2017). Process and procedures for estimating score reliability and precision. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50(4), 256–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1388680

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barrio Minton, C. A., & Lenz, A. S. (2019). Applied research and program evaluation for helping professionals. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, R. M. (2020). Addressing missing data in quantitative counseling research. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation. https://doi.org/10.1080/21501378.2019.1711037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Delacre, M., Lakens, D., & Leys, C. (2017). Why psychologists should by default use Welch’s t-test instead of student’s t-test. International Review of Social Psychology, 30(1), Article 92–101.

  • Everitt, B. S. (1975). Multivariate analysis: The need for data, and other problems. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 126(3), 237–240. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.126.3.237

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fairburn, C. G. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy and eating disorders. The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Furr, R. M., & Funder, D. C. (2004). Situational similarity and behavioral consistency: Subjective, objective, variable-centered, and person-centered approaches. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(5), 421–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2003.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert, K., Barch, D. M., & Luby, J. L. (2020). The Overcontrol in Youth Checklist (OCYC): Behavioral and neural validation of a parent-report of child overcontrol in early childhood. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 51, 27–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-019-00907-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert, K., Hall, K., & Codd, T. (2020). Radically open dialectical behavior therapy: Social signaling, transdiagnostic utility and current evidence. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 19–28. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S201848

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hart, D., Burock, D., London, B., Atkins, R., & Bonilla-Santiago, G. (2005). The relation of personality types to physiological, behavioural, and cognitive processes. European Journal of Personality, 19(5), 391–407. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.547

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hays, D. G., & Wood, C. (2017). Stepping outside the normed sample: Implications for validity. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 282–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1339565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hempel, R. J., Rushbrook, S. C., O’Mahen, H., & Lynch, T. R. (2018). How to differentiate overcontrol from undercontrol: Findings from the RefraMED study and guidelines from clinical practice. The Behavior Therapist, 41(3), 132–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hollenbaugh, M. H., & Lenz, A. S. (2018). Preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 96, 119–131. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howard, M. C., & Hoffman, M. E. (2018). Variable-centered, person-centered, and person-specific approaches: Where theory meets the method. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 846–876. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117744021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kocher, M. G., Martinsson, P., Myrseth, K., & Wollbrant, C. (2017). Strong, bold, and kind: Self-control and cooperation in social dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Economics, 20(1), 44–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10683-015-9475-7

  • Lee, K-T., Rong, J-R., Hsu, S-P., Liu, C-Y., & Kuo, C-J. (2018). The effects of problem-solving skills training on self-control behaviors and psychotic symptoms among community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 3(2). Retrieved from http://journal.julypress.com/index.php/ijsn/article/view/384

  • Lambie, G. W., Blount, A. J., & Mullen, P. R. (2017). Establishing content-oriented evidence for psychological assessments. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 210–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1336930

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lenz, A. S., & Del Conte, G. (2018). Efficacy of DBT-A among adolescents in a partial hospitalization program. Journal of Counseling and Development, 96, 15–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lenz, A. S., Del Conte, G., Hollenbaugh, M., & Callendar, K. (2016). Emotional regulation and interpersonal effectiveness as predictors of treatment outcomes within a DBT treatment program for adolescents. Counseling Outcome and Research Evaluation, 7, 73–85. https://doi.org/10.1177/2150137816642439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lenz, A. S., & Wester, K. L. (2017). Development and evaluation of assessments for counseling professionals. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 201–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1361303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lightsey, O. R., Maxwell, D. A., Nash, T. M., Rarey, E. B., & McKinney, V. A. (2011). Self-control and self-efficacy for affect regulation as moderators of the negative affect–life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(2), 42–154. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.25.2.142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lilienfeld, S. O., & Fowler, K. A. (2006). The self-report assessment of psychopathy: Problems, pitfalls, and promises. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 107–132). The Guilford Press.

  • Linehan, M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, T. R. (2018). Radically open dialectical behaviour therapy: Theory and practice for treating disorders of overcontrol. Context Press.

  • Lynch, T. R., Hempel, R. J., Whalley, B., Byford, S., Chamba, R., Clarke, P., Kingdon, D. G., & Russell, I. T. (2020). Refractory depression - Mechanisms and efficacy of radically open dialectical behaviour therapy (RefraMED): Findings of a randomised trial on benefits and harms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 216(4), 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2019.53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, T. R., Schneider, K. G., Zachary Rosenthal, M., & Cheavens, J. S. (2007). A mediational model of trait negative affectivity, dispositional thought suppression, and intrusive thoughts following laboratory stressors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(4), 749–761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.06.009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morin, A. J. S., Gagne, M., & Bujacz, A. (2018). Call for papers: Person-centered methodologies in the organizational sciences. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 803–813. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428118773856

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagumo, N. (2000). Relationships between low-grade chronic depression, pain, and personality traits among community-dwelling persons with traumatic spinal cord injury. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 71(3), 205–210. https://doi.org/10.4992/jjpsy.71.205

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). McGraw Hill.

  • Peterson, C. H., Peterson, N. A., & Powell, K. G. (2017). Cognitive interviewing for item development: Validity evidence based on content and response processes. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 217–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1339564

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robins, R. W., John, O. P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1996). Resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled boys: Three replicable personality types. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 70(1), 157–171.

  • Rosenbaum, M. (1980). A schedule for assessing self-control behaviors: Preliminary findings. Behavior Therapy, 11(1), 109–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(80)80040-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seretis, D. (2017). Toward a dimensional model of disorders of self-control: Developing measures of under and over-control tendencies [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Southampton].

  • Spurgeon, S. L. (2017). Evaluating the unintended consequences of assessment practices: Construct irrelevance and construct underrepresentation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50, 275–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1339563

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55. https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd

  • Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

  • Watson, J. C. (2017). Establishing evidence for internal structure using exploratory factor analysis. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 50(4), 232–238.

  • Weir, R. C., & Gjerde, P. F. (2002). Preschool personality prototypes: Internal coherence, cross-study replicability, and developmental outcomes in adolescence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(9), 1229–1241. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672022812008

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. Stephen Lenz.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lenz, A.S., James, P., Stewart, C. et al. A Preliminary Validation of the Youth Over- and Under-Control (YOU-C) Screening Measure with a Community Sample. Int J Adv Counselling 43, 489–503 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-021-09439-9

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-021-09439-9

Keywords

  • Overcontrol
  • Under-control
  • Youth
  • Validation
  • Scale