The Relationship between Awareness of Racism and Privilege Awareness among Southern European University Students

  • Courtland C. Lee
  • Elina Zalkalne


As immigrants enter a new country, their arrival generally results in demographic shifts that may challenge the perceptions of native-born members of the resident population. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between awareness of racism and privilege awareness in native-born students at a university located in a Southern European country experiencing an influx of immigrants. Two hundred and twelve students participated in the study. Bivariate correlations showed a significant positive relationship between students’ awareness of racism and their awareness of the privilege they possessed as native-born citizens. Implications for counsellors working with those facing the challenges of immigration are discussed.


Racism awareness Privilege awareness Native-born students Immigration 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Chicago School of Professional Psychology – Washington, DCWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.College of St. Clare, MaltaPembrokeMalta

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