Examining U.S. and Japanese College Students’ Differences in Psychological Distress: the Mediating Roles of Valued Action and Experiential Avoidance
- 31 Downloads
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a counseling modality that features values clarification interventions. However, a well-established ACT-consistent measure of values for practitioners and researchers is lacking. The present study, therefore, examined an exploratory measure called the Valued Time and Difficulty Questionnaire (VTDQ; Wilson et al. 2010) and investigated the possible explanatory role of multiple ACT constructs on psychological distress. Obtained cross-national differences with a sample of 188 U.S. and 223 Japanese students were consistent with previous research. Moreover, a multiple mediator model revealed significant indirect effects of VTDQ subscale scores for time and difficulty on the association between culture and symptoms.
KeywordsValues Experiential avoidance Psychological flexibility Distress Cultural differences
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Arch, J. J., Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B., Eifert, G. H., & Craske, M. G. (2012). Longitudinal treatment mediation of traditional cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy for anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(7–8), 469–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.04.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- A-Tjak, J. L., Davis, M. L., Morina, N., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. J., & Emmelkamp, P. G. (2015). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinically relevant mental and physical health problems. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 84(1), 30–36. https://doi.org/10.1159/000365764.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., Baer, R. A., Carpenter, K. M., Guenole, N., Orcutt, H. K., … & Zettle, R. D. (2011). Preliminary psychometric properties of the acceptance and action questionnaire–II: a revised measure of psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance. Behavior Therapy, 42(4), 676–688. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2011.03.007.
- Chambless, D. L., & Klonsky, E. D. (2013). Compendium of empirically supported treatments. In G. P. Koocher, J. C. Norcross, B. A. Greene, G. P. Koocher, J. C. Norcross, & B. A. Greene (Eds.), Psychologists’ desk reference (pp. 159–166). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780199845491.003.0031.
- Chambless, D. L., Crits-Christoph, P., Wampold, B. E., Norcross, J. C., Lambert, M. J., Bohart, C., & … Johannsen, B. E. (2006). What should be validated?. In J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, R. F. Levant, J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler, R. F. Levant (Eds.), Evidence-based practices in mental health: Debate and dialogue on the fundamental questions (pp. 191–256). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/11265-005.
- Cheng, J. K. Y., & Sue, S. (2014). Addressing cultural and ethnic minority issues in the acceptance and mindfulness movement. In A. Masuda (Ed.), Mindfulness and acceptance in multicultural competency: A contextual approach to sociocultural diversity in theory and practice (pp. 21–37). Oakland: Context Press/New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- Cheng, D., Leong, F. T., & Geist, R. (1993). Cultural differences in psychological distress between Asian and Caucasian American college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 21(3), 182–190. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1993.tb00598.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dahl, J. C., Plumb, J. C., Stewart, I., & Lundgren, T. (2009). The art and science of valuing in psychotherapy: Helping clients discover, explore, and commit to valued action using acceptance and commitment therapy. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- Drake, C. E. (2017). VTDQ and AAQ cross-cultural comparison database. Retrieved from osf.io/ft7jh.Google Scholar
- Drake, C. E., & Keusch, A. (2012). The assessment of valuing among undergraduates: Importance, time, difficulty, and anxiety. Presentation at the meeting for the Association for Behavior Analysis, Seattle.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, D. P. (1978). Manual of the general health questionnaire. Windsor: NFER Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152–1168. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., Wilson, K. G., Bissett, R. T., Pistorello, J., Toarmino, D., … & McCurry, S. M. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance: a preliminary test of a working model. The Psychological Record, 54(4), 553–578.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Villatte, M., Levin, M., & Hildebrandt, M. (2011). Open, aware, and active: contextual approaches as an emerging trend in the behavioral and cognitive therapies. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7141–168. doi: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104449.
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Khan, J. A., & Cross, D. G. (1983). Mental health professional and client values: similar or different? Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage & Family, 4(2), 71–78.Google Scholar
- Kinnier, R. T. (1995). A reconceptualization of values clarification: values conflict resolution. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1995.tb01817.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kirschenbaum, H. (2013). Values clarification in counseling and psychotherapy: Practical strategies for individual and group settings. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199972130.001.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kishita, N., Tamamoto, T., & Shimada, H. (2008). Development of the Japanese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. Paper presented at the meeting of the Japanese Association of Health Psychology, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
- Levin, M. E., Hildebrandt, M. J., Lillis, J., & Hayes, S. C. (2012). The impact of treatment components suggested by the psychological flexibility model: a meta-analysis of laboratory-based component studies. Behavior Therapy, 43(4), 741–756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.05.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levin, M. E., MacLane, C., Daflos, S., Seeley, J. R., Hayes, S. C., Biglan, A., & Pistorello, J. (2014). Examining psychological inflexibility as a transdiagnostic process across psychological disorders. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(3), 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.06.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Muto, T., Hayes, S. C., & Jeffcoat, T. (2011). The effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy bibliotherapy for enhancing the psychological health of Japanese college students living abroad. Behavior Therapy, 42(2), 323–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2010.08.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakagawa, Y., & Daibo, I. (1985). Manual of the Japanese version of the general health questionnaire. Tokyo: Nihon Bunka Kagakusha.Google Scholar
- Rolffs, J. L., Rogge, R. D., Wilson, K. G. (2016). Disentangling components of flexibility via the Hexaflex model: development and validation of the multidimensional psychological flexibility inventory (MPFI). Assessment, 1–25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191116645905.
- Sain, T., Primeaux, S., & Drake, C. E. (2016). I can’t get no valued action: exploring the valued action and satisfaction questionnaire. Presentation at the meeting for the association for contextual behavioral science, Seattle.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6.Google Scholar
- Shima, T., Yanagihara, M., Kawai, T., & Kumano, H. (2013). Validation of the Japanese version of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Japanese Psychological Association, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
- VanBuskirk, K., West, L., Malcarne, V., Afari, N., Liu, L., Petkus, A., & Wetherell, J. L. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis of the valued living questionnaire in a Black American sample: implications for cognitive research and practice. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(6), 796–805. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9405-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar