Initial Exploration of Therapeutic Presence Pedagogy in Counselor Education

  • Jude T. AustinII
  • Julius A. Austin


A qualitatively modified Delphi approach was used to operationalize therapeutic presence so that it can be further studied as it relates to counselor training and therapeutic outcomes. A total of 12 counselors and counselor educators with over 200 combined years of experience in counselor education participated in this study. The results include a definition of therapeutic presence geared toward counselors-in-training, 13 recognizable signs of students’ expressed therapeutic presence in session, and 17 suggestions for counselor educators to help students develop therapeutic presence. We also discuss implications and recommendations for further investigation.


Therapeutic presence Modified Delphi study Counselor education 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (in its most recently amended version).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Counseling and Human Services DepartmentOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA
  2. 2.Marriage & Family Therapy and Counseling StudiesUniversity of Louisiana at MonroeMonroeUSA

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