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Effect of Different Z-directional Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Composites Using Numerical and Experimental Tests

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Based on the flexible oriented three-dimensional woven process, the Z-directional mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced composite were investigated. The tensile properties of fibers with different K-bundles at different twist levels were compared and the results showed that the 4 bundles of 3 K fibers have the best tensile strength at 20 twists/m. Using the Otsu threshold segmentation algorithm and scanning electron microscope detection method, the reasons for the variation of fiber twist with tensile strength were explained by counting hairiness pixel values and observing the pull-out of fiber filaments. Using computed tomography (CT) to scan the images of the impregnated fiber bundles and preforms, the fiber bundle filling factor was derived as 0.71, and the cross-sectional area of the fiber bundle after weaving are SX/Y = 0.416mm2, SZ=0.453mm2, which were used to derive the volume fraction of fiber preforms and the elastic modulus of the composites, the maximum errors are 2.7% and 10.3%, respectively. For twisted fibers, the conversion relationship among fiber bundle length and twist and the cross-sectional model of twisting were established, and the volume fraction of 20twists/m fiber preforms was 89.54%, and their elastic modulus was 43.48GPa. A theoretical prediction model and a finite element simulation model are established, and it is proved by experiments that when the Z-directional fiber is twisted at 20 twists/m, the Z-directional mechanical properties are improved by 44.75%.

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The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author/first author on reasonable request.


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This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number:51790173].

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Correspondence to Zhongde Shan.

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Guo, Z., Shan, Z., Huang, H. et al. Effect of Different Z-directional Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Composites Using Numerical and Experimental Tests. Appl Compos Mater 29, 2265–2292 (2022).

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