Applied Composite Materials

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 553–568 | Cite as

Development of Through-Thickness Reinforcement in Advanced Composites Incorporating Rigid Cellular Foams

Article

Abstract

This paper presents a method of joining carbon-fibre plies and rigid cellular foam core with stitching for producing light-weight composite structures. After resin infusion and consolidation, the stitched sandwich panel exhibits superior damage tolerance as well as improved transverse properties due to the presence of through-thickness fibre reinforcement. First part of the paper deals with the conceptual development of a multi-needle stitching machine for rigid foams. A needle penetration model for computing the penetration forces has been reported—there is a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical penetration force-displacement curves. A number of sandwich panels with orthogonal and bias stitch orientations have been developed and examined for stitch quality with the aid of X-ray tomography. The paper also presents results from quasi-static indentation, three-point bending and transverse compression tests, on both the stitched and unstitched sandwich panels.

Keywords

Multi-needle stitching Rigid foam Sandwich structures Through-thickness Damage tolerance 

References

  1. 1.
    Astrom, B.T.: Manufacturing of Polymer Composites. Chapman&Hall, London (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Grant, C.: Automated tape layer processing for composite components, 5th Annual SPE Automative Composites Conference, Troy, Michigan, 12–14 Sept 2005Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coriolis Composites. http://www.coriolis-composites.com/ (2012). Accessed April 2012
  4. 4.
    Lukaszewicz, D.H.J.A., Ward, C., Potter, K.D.: The engineering aspects of automated prepreg layup: History, present and future. Compos. Part B 43(3), 991–1009 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beckwith, S.W.: Resin infusion technology: Part 1-Industry highlights. SAMPE J. 43(1), 61 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Black, S.: A400M Cargo Door: Out of the Autoclave, Composites World. http://www.compositesworld.com/articles/inside-manufacturing-a400m-cargo-door-out-of-the-autoclave (2012)
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Dexter, H.B.: An overview of the NASA textile composites programme. Proceedings of Fibre-Tex, pp. 1–31. NASA Conference Publication (1992)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dow, M.: The advanced stitching machine: Making composite wing structures of the future. NASA Facts, Langley Research Centre. http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/PAIS/ASM.html (1997)
  10. 10.
    Mouritz, A.P., Cox, B.N.A.: Mechanistic approach to the properties of stitched laminates. Compos. A 31(1), 1–27 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ogale, A., Mitschang, P.: Tailoring of textile preforms for fibre reinforced polymer composites. J. Ind. Text. 34(2), 77–96 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    QinetiQ data sheet-stitching dry fibre preforms. http://www.qinetiq.com/what/capabilities/air/Documents/Stitched-preforms-data-sheet.pdf (2012). Accessed April 2012
  13. 13.
    Partridge, I.K., Pickett, A.K., Mills, A.: Robotic Localised Reinforcement of Composite Structures, Project IMRC 27. Cranfield University (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stanley, L.E. and Adams, D.O.: Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels. NASA/CR-2001-211025. Langley Research Centre (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Potluri, P., Kusak, E., Reddy, T.Y.: Novel stitch-bonded sandwich composite structures. Compos. Struct. 59, 251–259 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stoll, F., Banerjee, R., Campbell, S., Day, S.: Manufacture of fibre-reinforced foam composite sandwich structures, WebCore Technologies Inc. American Society of Composites 16th Annual Technical Conference. Blacksburg Virginia (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Le Roy, G., Binetruy, C., amd Krawczak, P.: Sandwich structures 7: Advancing with sandwich structures and materials, Part 7, 693–702 (2005) doi:10.1007/1-4020-3848-8_70Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guilleminot, J., Comas-Cardona, S., Kondo, D., Binetruy, C., Krawczak, P.: Multiscale modelling of the composite reinforced foam core of a 3D sandwich structure. Compos. Sci. Technol. (2008). doi:10.1016/j.compstech
  19. 19.
    Lascoup, B., Aboura, Z., Khellil, K., Benzeggagh: On the mechanical effect of stitch addition in sandwich panel. Compos. Sci. Technol. 66, 1385–1398 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aktas, A.: Multi needle stitch-bonded sandwich composites for improved damage tolerance. PhD Thesis. School of Materials, University of Manchester (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile Composites Group, North West Composites CentreUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and the EnvironmentUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations