Bari, S., D. O. Svaldi, I. Jang, et al. Dependence on subconcussive impacts of brain metabolism in collision sport athletes: an MR spectroscopic study. Brain Imaging Behav. 13(3):735–749, 2019.
Broglio, S. P., D. Martini, L. Kasper, J. T. Eckner, and J. S. Kutcher. Estimation of head impact exposure in high school football: implications for regulating contact practices. Am. J. Sports Med. 41(12):2877–2884, 2013.
Brokaw, E. B., M. S. Fine, K. E. Kindschi, et al. Cross-sectional evaluation of visuomotor tracking performance following subconcussive head impacts. Technol. Health Care 26(1):109–118, 2018.
Carey, L., P. Stanwell, D. P. Terry, et al. Verifying head impacts recorded by a wearable sensor using video footage in rugby league: a preliminary study. Sports Med. Open. 5(1):9, 2019.
Caswell, S. V., P. Kelshaw, A. E. Lincoln, et al. Game-related impacts in high school boys’ lacrosse. Orthop. J. Sports Med. 7(4):2325967119835587, 2019.
Caswell, S. V., A. E. Lincoln, H. Stone, et al. Characterizing verified head impacts in high school girls’ lacrosse. Am. J. Sports Med. 45(14):3374–3381, 2017.
Cortes, N., A. E. Lincoln, G. D. Myer, et al. Video analysis verification of head impact events measured by wearable sensors. am. j. sports Med. 45(10):2379–2387, 2017.
Crisco, J. J., J. J. Chu, and R. M. Greenwald. An algorithm for estimating acceleration magnitude and impact location using multiple nonorthogonal single-axis accelerometers. J. Biomech. Eng. 126(6):849–854, 2004.
Dickson, T. J., S. Trathen, G. S. Waddington, F. A. Terwiel, and D. Baltis. A human factors approach to snowsport safety: novel research on pediatric participants’ behaviors and head injury risk. Appl. Ergon. 53(A):79–86, 2016.
Friess, S. H., R. N. Ichord, J. Ralston, et al. Repeated traumatic brain injury affects composite cognitive function in piglets. J. Neurotrauma 26(17):1111–1121, 2009.
Gwin, J. T., J. J. Chu, S. G. Diamond, et al. An investigation of the NOCSAE linear impactor test method based on in vivo measures of head impact acceleration in American football. J. Biomech. Eng. 132(1):011006, 2010.
Huber, C. M., D. A. Patton, K. Jenkins, and K. B. Arbogast. Video analysis of head impact sensor data from adolescent soccer players. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 99(11):e152, 2018.
Kelley, M. E., J. E. Urban, L. E. Miller, et al. Head impact exposure in youth football: comparing age- and weight-based levels of play. J. Neurotrauma 34(11):1939–1947, 2017.
Kiefer, A. W., C. A. DiCesare, P. Nalepka, et al. Less efficient oculomotor performance is associated with increased incidence of head impacts in high school ice hockey. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 21(1):4–9, 2018.
King, D. A., P. A. Hume, M. Brughelli, and C. Gissane. Instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches. Am. J. Sports Med. 43(3):614–624, 2015.
Kuo, C., L. Wu, J. Loza, et al. Comparison of video-based and sensor-based head impact exposure. Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 13(6):e0199238, 2018.
Kuo, C., L. Wu, W. Zhao, et al. Propagation of errors from skull kinematic measurements to finite element tissue responses. Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 17(1):235–247, 2018.
Lamond, L. C., J. B. Caccese, T. A. Buckley, J. Glutting, and T. W. Kaminski. Linear acceleration in direct head contact across impact type, player position, and playing scenario in collegiate women’s soccer. J. Athl. Train. 53(2):115–121, 2018.
Lucas, R. M., and A. J. McMichael. Association or causation: evaluating links between “environment and disease”. Bull. World Health Organ. 83(10):792–795, 2005.
Lynall, R. C., L. B. Lempke, R. J. Johnson, M. N. Anderson, and J. D. Schmidt. A comparison of youth flag and tackle football head impact biomechanics. J. Neurotrauma 36(11):1752–1757, 2019.
McAllister, T. W., and M. McCrea. Long-term cognitive and neuropsychiatric consequences of repetitive concussion and head-impact exposure. J. Athl. Train. 52(3):309–317, 2017.
McCuen, E. C., D. O. Svaldi, K. Breedlove, et al. Collegiate women’s soccer players suffer greater cumulative head impacts than their high school counterparts. J. Biomech. 48(13):3729–3732, 2015.
McIntosh, A. S., C. Willmott, D. A. Patton, et al. An assessment of the utility and functionality of wearable head impact sensors in Australian football. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 22(7):784–789, 2019.
McKee, A. C., M. L. Alosco, and B. R. Huber. Repetitive Head Impacts and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 27(4):529–535, 2016.
Miller, L. E., E. K. Pinkerton, K. C. Fabian, et al. Characterizing head impact exposure in youth female soccer with a custom-instrumented mouthpiece. Res. Sports Med. 28(1):55–71, 2020.
Miyashita, T. L., E. Diakogeorgiou, K. Marrie, and R. Danaher. Frequency and location of head impacts in Division I men’s lacrosse players. Athl. Train. Sports Health Care. 8(5):202–208, 2016.
Moher, D., L. Shamseer, M. Clarke, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P). Syst. Rev. 4(1):1, 2015.
Nevins, D. D., K. Hildenbrand, J. Kensrud, A. Vasavada, and L. Smith. Laboratory and field evaluation of a small form factor head impact sensor in un-helmeted play. J. Sports Eng. Technol. 232(3):242–254, 2018.
O’Connor, K. L., T. Peeters, S. Szymanski, and S. P. Broglio. Individual impact magnitude vs. cumulative magnitude for estimating concussion odds. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 45(8):1985–1992, 2017.
O’Connor, K. L., S. Rowson, S. M. Duma, and S. P. Broglio. Head-impact–measurement devices: a systematic review. J. Athl. Train. 52(3):206–227, 2017.
Patton, D. A. A review of instrumented equipment to investigate head impacts in sport. Appl. Bionics Biomech. 2016:7049743, 2016.
Patton, D. A., C. M. Huber, C. C. McDonald, et al. Video confirmation of head impact sensor data from high school soccer players. Am. J. Sports Med. 48(5):1246–1253, 2020.
Press, J. N., and S. Rowson. Quantifying head impact exposure in collegiate women’s soccer. Clin. J. Sport Med. 27(2):104–110, 2017.
Qin, Y., G.-L. Li, X.-H. Xu, et al. Brain structure alterations and cognitive impairment following repetitive mild head impact: an in vivo MRI and behavioral study in rat. Behav. Brain Res. 340:41–48, 2018.
Raghupathi, R., M. F. Mehr, M. A. Helfaer, and S. S. Margulies. Traumatic axonal injury is exacerbated following repetitive closed head injury in the neonatal pig. J. Neurotrauma 21(3):307–316, 2004.
Rich, A. M., T. M. Filben, L. E. Miller, et al. Development, validation and pilot field deployment of a custom mouthpiece for head impact measurement. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 47(10):2109–2121, 2019.
Rose, S. C., K. O. Yeates, D. R. Fuerst, et al. Head impact burden and change in neurocognitive function during a season of youth football. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 34(2):87–95, 2019.
Rose, S. C., K. O. Yeates, J. T. Nguyen, et al. Neurocognitive function and head impact burden over two seasons of youth tackle football. J. Neurotrauma 36(19):2803–2809, 2019.
Shamseer, L., D. Moher, M. Clarke, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P): elaboration and explanation. BMJ 350:g7647, 2015.
Shultz, S. R., D. F. MacFabe, K. A. Foley, R. Taylor, and D. P. Cain. Subconcussive brain injury in the long-evans rat induces acute neuroinflammation in the absence of behavioral impairments. Behav. Brain Res. 229(1):145–152, 2012.
Slemmer, J. E., and J. T. Weber. The extent of damage following repeated injury to cultured hippocampal cells is dependent on the severity of insult and inter-injury interval. Neurobiol. Dis. 18(3):421–431, 2005.
Stemper, B. D., A. S. Shah, J. Harezlak, et al. Repetitive head impact exposure in college football following an NCAA rule change to eliminate two-a-day preseason practices: a study from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 47(10):2073–2085, 2019.
Swartz, E. E., J. L. Myers, S. B. Cook, et al. A helmetless-tackling intervention in american football for decreasing head impact exposure: a randomized controlled trial. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 22(10):1102–1107, 2019.
Tyson, A. M., S. M. Duma, and S. Rowson. Laboratory evaluation of low-cost wearable sensors for measuring head impacts in sports. J. Appl. Biomech. 34(4):320–326, 2018.
Willmott, C., A. S. McIntosh, T. Howard, et al. SCAT3 Changes from baseline and associations with X2 patch measured head acceleration in amateur Australian football players. J. Sci. Med. Sport. 21(5):442–446, 2018.
Wu, L. C., C. Kuo, J. Loza, et al. Detection of American football head impacts using biomechanical features and support vector machine classification. Sci. Rep. 8:855, 2018.
Wu, L. C., V. Nangia, K. Bui, et al. In vivo evaluation of wearable head impact sensors. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 44(4):1234–1245, 2016.
Zonner, S. W., K. Ejima, Z. W. Bevilacqua, et al. Association of increased serum S100B levels with high school football subconcussive head impacts. Front. Neurol. 10(327):1–10, 2019.