Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 47, Issue 7, pp 1523–1538 | Cite as

Reproducibility and Repeatability of Five Different Technologies for Bar Velocity Measurement in Resistance Training

  • Javier Courel-Ibáñez
  • Alejandro Martínez-Cava
  • Ricardo Morán-Navarro
  • Pablo Escribano-Peñas
  • Javier Chavarren-Cabrero
  • Juan José González-Badillo
  • Jesús G. PallarésEmail author


This study aimed to analyze the agreement between five bar velocity monitoring devices, currently used in resistance training, to determine the most reliable device based on reproducibility (between-device agreement for a given trial) and repeatability (between-trial variation for each device). Seventeen resistance-trained men performed duplicate trials against seven increasing loads (20-30-40-50-60-70-80 kg) while obtaining mean, mean propulsive and peak velocity outcomes in the bench press, full squat and prone bench pull exercises. Measurements were simultaneously registered by two linear velocity transducers (LVT), two linear position transducers (LPT), two optoelectronic camera-based systems (OEC), two smartphone video-based systems (VBS) and one accelerometer (ACC). A comprehensive set of statistics for assessing reliability was used. Magnitude of errors was reported both in absolute (m s−1) and relative terms (%1RM), and included the smallest detectable change (SDC) and maximum errors (MaxError). LVT was the most reliable and sensitive device (SDC 0.02–0.06 m s−1, MaxError 3.4–7.1% 1RM) and the preferred reference to compare with other technologies. OEC and LPT were the second-best alternatives (SDC 0.06–0.11 m s−1), always considering the particular margins of error for each exercise and velocity outcome. ACC and VBS are not recommended given their substantial errors and uncertainty of the measurements (SDC > 0.13 m s−1).


Standard error of measurement Velocity-based resistance training Exercise testing Monitoring Strength performance Validity 



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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Courel-Ibáñez
    • 1
  • Alejandro Martínez-Cava
    • 1
  • Ricardo Morán-Navarro
    • 1
  • Pablo Escribano-Peñas
    • 1
  • Javier Chavarren-Cabrero
    • 2
  • Juan José González-Badillo
    • 3
  • Jesús G. Pallarés
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Human Performance and Sports Science Laboratory, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of MurciaSantiago de la RiberaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Physical EducationUniversity of Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain
  3. 3.Faculty of SportPablo de Olavide UniversitySevilleSpain

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