Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. In the last three decades, fluid dynamics investigations have been an important component in the study of the cardiovascular system and CVD. A large proportion of studies have been restricted to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of blood flow. However, with the development of flow measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), and recent advances in additive manufacturing, experimental investigation of such flow systems has become of interest to validate CFD studies, testing vascular implants and using the data for therapeutic procedures. This article reviews the technical aspects of in-vitro arterial flow measurement with the focus on PIV. CAD modeling of geometries and rapid prototyping of molds has been reviewed. Different processes of casting rigid and compliant models for experimental analysis have been reviewed and the accuracy of construction of each method has been compared. A review of refractive index matching and blood mimicking flow circuits is also provided. Methodologies and results of the most influential experimental studies are compared to elucidate the benefits, accuracy and limitations of each method.
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Funding was provided by University of Canterbury Doctoral scholarship programme.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with respect to the work presented. SGY was supported during this research by the University of Canterbury Doctoral Scholarship scheme.
Associate Editor Merryn Tawhai oversaw the review of this article.
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Yazdi, S.G., Geoghegan, P.H., Docherty, P.D. et al. A Review of Arterial Phantom Fabrication Methods for Flow Measurement Using PIV Techniques. Ann Biomed Eng 46, 1697–1721 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-018-2085-8
- Particle image velocimetry
- In vitro experimentation
- Experimental fluid dynamics
- Cardiovascular disease