Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 46, Issue 10, pp 1582–1594 | Cite as

Closed-Loop Active Compensation for Needle Deflection and Target Shift During Cooperatively Controlled Robotic Needle Insertion

  • Marek WartenbergEmail author
  • Joseph Schornak
  • Katie Gandomi
  • Paulo Carvalho
  • Chris Nycz
  • Niravkumar Patel
  • Iulian Iordachita
  • Clare Tempany
  • Nobuhiko Hata
  • Junichi Tokuda
  • Gregory S. Fischer
Medical Robotics


Intra-operative imaging is sometimes available to assist needle biopsy, but typical open-loop insertion does not account for unmodeled needle deflection or target shift. Closed-loop image-guided compensation for deviation from an initial straight-line trajectory through rotational control of an asymmetric tip can reduce targeting error. Incorporating robotic closed-loop control often reduces physician interaction with the patient, but by pairing closed-loop trajectory compensation with hands-on cooperatively controlled insertion, a physician’s control of the procedure can be maintained while incorporating benefits of robotic accuracy. A series of needle insertions were performed with a typical 18G needle using closed-loop active compensation under both fully autonomous and user-directed cooperative control. We demonstrated equivalent improvement in accuracy while maintaining physician-in-the-loop control with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the targeting accuracy between any pair of autonomous or individual cooperative sets, with average targeting accuracy of 3.56 mmrms. With cooperatively controlled insertions and target shift between 1 and 10 mm introduced upon needle contact, the system was able to effectively compensate up to the point where error approached a maximum curvature governed by bending mechanics. These results show closed-loop active compensation can enhance targeting accuracy, and that the improvement can be maintained under user directed cooperative insertion.


Image-guided therapy Medical robotics Teleoperation Needle steering 



This research was funded by NIH R01 CA111288, NIH R01 CA166379 and NIH R01 EB020667.


NH has a financial interest in Harmonus, a company developing Image Guided Therapy products. NH’s interests were reviewed and are managed by Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Partners HealthCare in accordance with their conflict of interest policies.


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Wartenberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joseph Schornak
    • 1
  • Katie Gandomi
    • 1
  • Paulo Carvalho
    • 1
  • Chris Nycz
    • 1
  • Niravkumar Patel
    • 2
  • Iulian Iordachita
    • 2
  • Clare Tempany
    • 3
  • Nobuhiko Hata
    • 3
  • Junichi Tokuda
    • 3
  • Gregory S. Fischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Robotics EngineeringWorcester Polytechnic InstituteWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Brigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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