Cartilage Metabolism is Modulated by Synovial Fluid Through Metalloproteinase Activity
Synovial fluid (SF) contains various cytokines that regulate chondrocyte metabolism and is dynamically associated with joint disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of diluted normal SF on catabolic metabolism of articular cartilage under inflammatory conditions. For this purpose, SF was isolated from healthy bovine joints, diluted, and added to cartilage explant cultures stimulated with interleukin-1 (IL-1) for 12 days. The kinetic release of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen, as well as nitric oxide and gelatinase matrix metalloproteinases were analyzed in the supernatant. Chondrocyte survival and matrix integrity in the explants were evaluated with Live/Dead and histological staining. Diluted synovial fluid treatment suppressed sGAG and collagen release, downregulated the production of nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinases, reduced IL-1-induced chondrocyte death, and rescued matrix depletion. Our results demonstrate that normal SF can counteract inflammation-driven cartilage catabolism. This study reports on the protective function of healthy SF and the therapeutic potential of recapitulation of SF for cartilage repair.
KeywordsArticular cartilage Interleukin-1 (IL-1) Inflammation Matrix degradation Osteoarthritis
Leo Q. Wan is a Pew Scholar in Biomedical Science, supported by Pew Charitable Trusts.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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