Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model
Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6–2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas. A material model was fitted to the biaxial experimental data to obtain constitutive parameters. Histological and mass fraction analyses were performed to investigate the underlying microstructure and dry weight percentages of elastin and collagen in the control and the diabetic aortas. No statistically significant difference was found in ultimate tensile strength between the control and the diabetic aortas. Regarding biaxial mechanical responses, the diabetic aortas exhibited significantly lower extensibility and significantly higher tissue stiffness than the control aortas. Notably, tissue stiffening occurred in both circumferential and axial directions for the diabetic aortas; however, mechanical anisotropy does not change significantly. The material model was able to fit biaxial experimental data very well. Histology showed that a number of isolated foam cells were embedded in the diabetic aortas and hyperplasia of collagen was identified. The dry weight percentages of collagen within the diabetic aortas increased significantly as compared to the control aortas, whereas no significant change was found for that of elastin. Our data suggest that the diabetes impairs elastic properties and alters microstructure of the aortas and consequently, these changes may further contribute to complex aortic wall remodeling.
KeywordsDiabetic aorta Biomechanical behavior Uniaxial and biaxial tensile testing Material modeling Mass fraction analysis
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11702197), “Shanghai Pujiang Program” (16PJ1409200), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (1500219128) and sponsored by Visiting Scholar Foundation of Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, People’s Republic of China (CQKLBST-2016-010). The authors particularly thank J. Huang from Shanghai East Hospital for his help during anatomical dissection of rabbit aortas.
Conflict of interest
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