Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 45, Issue 2, pp 310–331 | Cite as

On the Mechanics of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

  • Lakshmi P. Dasi
  • Hoda Hatoum
  • Arash Kheradvar
  • Ramin Zareian
  • S. Hamed Alavi
  • Wei Sun
  • Caitlin Martin
  • Thuy Pham
  • Qian Wang
  • Prem A. Midha
  • Vrishank Raghav
  • Ajit P. Yoganathan
The Pursuit of Engineering the Ideal Heart Valve Replacement or Repair

Abstract

Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) represent the latest advances in prosthetic heart valve technology. TAVs are truly transformational as they bring the benefit of heart valve replacement to patients that would otherwise not be operated on. Nevertheless, like any new device technology, the high expectations are dampened with growing concerns arising from frequent complications that develop in patients, indicating that the technology is far from being mature. Some of the most common complications that plague current TAV devices include malpositioning, crimp-induced leaflet damage, paravalvular leak, thrombosis, conduction abnormalities and prosthesis-patient mismatch. In this article, we provide an in-depth review of the current state-of-the-art pertaining the mechanics of TAVs while highlighting various studies guiding clinicians, regulatory agencies, and next-generation device designers.

Keywords

TAVR Transcatheter aortic valve Stent Minimally invasive Thrombosis Paravalvular leak Valve-in-valve 

References

  1. 1.
    Abbasi, M., and A. N. Azadani. Leaflet stress and strain distributions following incomplete transcatheter aortic valve expansion. J. Biomech. 48:3672–3680, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abbasi, M., and A. N. Azadani. The synergistic impact of eccentric and incomplete stent deployment on transcatheter aortic valve leaflet stress distribution. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66:B253–B254, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abdel-Wahab, M., T. Comberg, H. J. Buttner, M. El-Mawardy, K. Chatani, M. Gick, V. Geist, G. Richardt, F. J. Neumann, and T. R. Segeberg-Krozingen. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloon- and self-expandable prostheses a pooled analysis from a 2-center experience. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 7:284–292, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alavi, S. H., E. M. Groves, and A. Kheradvar. The effects of transcatheter valve crimping on pericardial leaflets. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 97:1260–1266, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alavi, S. H., and A. Kheradvar. Metal mesh scaffold for tissue engineering of membranes. Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 18:293–301, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alavi, S. H., and A. Kheradvar. A hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 99:2183–2187, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alavi, S. H., W. F. Liu, and A. Kheradvar. Inflammatory response assessment of a hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve leaflet. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41:316–326, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson, J. M., A. Rodriguez, and D. T. Chang. Foreign body reaction to biomaterials. Semin. Immunol. 20:86–100, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arsalan, M., and T. Walther. Durability of prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 13:360–367, 2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Astudillo, L. M., O. Santana, P. A. Urbandt, A. M. Benjo, L. U. Elkayam, F. O. Nascimento, G. A. Lamas, and J. Lamelas. Clinical predictors of prosthesis-patient mismatch after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. Clinics 67:55–60, 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bianchi, M., R. P. Ghosh, G. Marom, M. J. Slepian, and D. Bluestein. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patient-specific aortic roots: effect of crimping and positioning on device performance. In: 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2015, pp. 282–285.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Azadani, A. N., N. Jaussaud, L. Ge, S. Chitsaz, T. A. M. Chuter, and E. E. Tseng. Valve-in-valve hemodynamics of 20-mm transcatheter aortic valves in small bioprostheses. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 92:548–555, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Azadani, A. N., N. Jaussaud, P. B. Matthews, L. Ge, T. A. M. Chuter, and E. E. Tseng. Transcatheter aortic valves inadequately relieve stenosis in small degenerated bioprostheses. Interact. CardioVasc. Thorac. Surg. 11:70–77, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Azadani, A. N., and E. E. Tseng. Transcatheter heart valves for failing bioprostheses: state-of-the-art review of valve-in-valve implantation. Circulation 4:621–628, 2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bailey, J., N. Curzen, and N. W. Bressloff. Assessing the impact of including leaflets in the simulation of tavi deployment into a patient-specific aortic root. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 19:733–744, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bapat, V. N., R. Attia, and M. Thomas. Effect of valve design on the stent internal diameter of a bioprosthetic valve a concept of true internal diameter and its implications for the valve-in-valve procedure. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 7:115–127, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bianchi, M., R. P. Ghosh, G. Marom, M. J. Slepian, and D. Bluestein. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patient-specific aortic roots: effect of crimping and positioning on device performance. Ann. Int. Conf. IEEE 36:282–285, 2015.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Capelli, C., G. M. Bosi, E. Cerri, J. Nordmeyer, T. Odenwald, P. Bonhoeffer, F. Migliavacca, A. M. Taylor, and S. Schievano. Patient-specific simulations of transcatheter aortic valve stent implantation. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50:183–192, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Daneshvar, S. A., and S. H. Rahimtoola. Valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (Vp-Pm) a long-term perspective. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 60:1123–1135, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Buhr, W., S. Pfeifer, J. Slotta-Huspenina, E. Wintermantel, G. Lutter, and W. A. Goetz. Impairment of pericardial leaflet structure from balloon-expanded valved stents. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 143:1417–1421, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Delgado, V., S. Kapadia, M. J. Schalij, J. D. Schuijf, E. M. Tuzcu, and J. J. Bax. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: implications of multimodality imaging in patient selection, procedural guidance, and outcomes. Heart 98:743–754, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Detaint, D., L. Lepage, D. Himbert, E. Brochet, D. Messika-Zeitoun, B. Iung, and A. Vahanian. Determinants of significant paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation impact of device and annulus discongruence. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2:821–827, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dewey, T., D. Brown, W. Ryan, M. Herbert, S. Prince, and M. Mack. Reliability of risk algorithms in predicting early and late operative outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 135:180–187, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Di Martino, L. F. M., W. B. Vletter, B. Ren, C. Schultz, N. M. Van Mieghem, O. I. I. Soliman, M. Di Biase, P. P. de Jaegere, and M. L. Geleijnse. Prediction of paravalvular leakage after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 31:1461–1468, 2015.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dijkman, P. E., A. Driessen-Mol, L. M. deHeer, J. Kluin, L. A. vanHerwerden, B. Odermatt, F. P. Baaijens, and S. P. Hoerstrup. Trans-apical versus surgical implantation of autologous ovine tissue-engineered heart valves. J. Heart Valve Dis. 21:670–678, 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Driessen-Mol, A., M. Y. Emmert, P. E. Dijkman, L. Frese, B. Sanders, B. Weber, N. Cesarovic, M. Sidler, J. Leenders, and R. Jenni. Transcatheter implantation of homologous “off-the-shelf” tissue-engineered heart valves with self-repair capacity: long-term functionality and rapid in vivo remodeling in sheep. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63:1320–1329, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ducci, A., S. Tzamtzis, M. J. Mullen, and G. Burriesci. Hemodynamics in the valsalva sinuses after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). J. Heart Valve Dis. 22:688–696, 2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dumesnil, J., and P. Pibarot. Prosthesis-patient mismatch: an update. Curr. Cardiol. Rep. 13:250–257, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dvir, D. Treatment of small surgical valves clinical considerations for achieving optimal results in valve-in-valve procedures. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 8:2034–2036, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dvir, D., H. Eltchaninoff, J. Ye, A. Kan, E. Durand, A. Bizios, A. Cheung, M. Aziz, M. Simonato, C. Tron, Y. Arbel, R. Moss, J. Leipsic, H. Ofek, G. Perlman, M. Barbanti, M. A. Seidman, P. Blanke, R. Yao, R. Boone, S. Lauck, S. Lichtenstein, D. Wood, A. Cribier, and J. Webb. First look at long-term durability of transcatheter heart valves: assessment of valve function up to 10-years after implantation. In: EuroPCR (Paria: 2016).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dvir, D., J. Leipsic, P. Blanke, H. B. Ribeiro, R. Kornowski, A. Pichard, J. Rodes-Cabau, D. A. Wood, D. Stub, I. Ben-Dor, G. Maluenda, R. R. Makkar, and J. G. Webb. Coronary obstruction in transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation preprocedural evaluation, device selection, protection, and treatment. Circulation 8:10, 2015.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dvir, D., and J. G. Webb. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation for patients with degenerative surgical bioprosthetic valves. Circ. J. 79:695–703, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dvir, D., J. G. Webb, S. Bleiziffer, M. Pasic, R. Waksman, S. Kodali, M. Barbanti, A. Latib, U. Schaefer, J. Rodes-Cabau, H. Treede, N. Piazza, D. Hildick-Smith, D. Himbert, T. Walther, C. Hengstenberg, H. Nissen, R. Bekeredjian, P. Presbitero, E. Ferrari, A. Segev, A. de Weger, S. Windecker, N. E. Moat, M. Napodano, M. Wilbring, A. G. Cerillo, S. Brecker, D. Tchetche, T. Lefevre, F. De Marco, C. Fiorina, A. S. Petronio, R. C. Teles, L. Testa, J. C. Laborde, M. B. Leon, R. Kornowski, and Valve In Valve Int Data Registry. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in failed bioprosthetic surgical valves. JAMA 312:162–170, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eggebrecht, H., U. Schafer, H. Treede, P. Boekstegers, J. Babin-Ebell, M. Ferrari, H. Mollmann, H. Baumgartner, T. Carrel, P. Kahlert, P. Lange, T. Walther, R. Erbel, R. H. Mehta, and M. Thielmann. Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation for degenerated bioprosthetic heart valves. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 4:1218–1227, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Emmert, M. Y., B. Weber, P. Wolint, L. Behr, S. Sammut, T. Frauenfelder, L. Frese, J. Scherman, C. E. Brokopp, and C. Templin. Stem cell–based transcatheter aortic valve implantation: first experiences in a pre-clinical model. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 5:874–883, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gavina, C., A. Goncalves, C. Almeria, R. Hernandez, A. Leite-Moreira, F. Rocha-Goncalves, and J. Zamorano. Determinants of clinical improvement after surgical replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation for isolated aortic stenosis. Cardiovasc. Ultrasound 12:10, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Genereux, P., S. J. Head, R. Hahn, B. Daneault, S. Kodali, M. R. Williams, N. M. van Mieghem, M. C. Alu, P. W. Serruys, A. P. Kappetein, and M. B. Leon. Paravalvular leak after transcatheter aortic valve replacement the new achilles’ heel? A comprehensive review of the literature. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 61:1125–1136, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gooley, R. P., J. D. Cameron, and I. T. Meredith. Assessment of the geometric interaction between the lotus transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis and the native ventricular aortic interface by 320-multidetector computed tomography. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 8:740–749, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gotzmann, M., M. Korten, W. Bojara, M. Lindstaedt, P. Rahlmann, A. Mugge, and A. Ewers. Long-term outcome of patients with moderate and severe prosthetic aortic valve regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Am. J. Cardiol. 110:1500–1506, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Grases, F., P. Sanchis, A. Costa-Bauzá, O. Bonnin, B. Isern, J. Perelló, and R. M. Prieto. Phytate inhibits bovine pericardium calcification in vitro. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 17:139–145, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Grbic, S., T. Mansi, R. Ionasec, I. Voigt, H. Houle, M. John, M. Schoebinger, N. Navab, and D. Comaniciu. Image-based computational models for tavi planning: from ct images to implant deployment. Med. Image Comput. Comput. Assist. Interv. 16:395–402, 2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Groves, E. M., A. Falahatpisheh, J. L. Su, and A. Kheradvar. The effects of positioning of transcatheter aortic valve on the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. ASAIO J. 60:545–552, 2014.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gunning, P. S., N. Saikrishnan, L. M. McNamara, and A. P. Yoganathan. An in vitro evaluation of the impact of eccentric deployment on transcatheter aortic valve hemodynamics. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42:1195–1206, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gunning, P. S., T. J. Vaughan, and L. M. McNamara. Simulation of self expanding transcatheter aortic valve in a realistic aortic root: implications of deployment geometry on leaflet deformation. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42:1989–2001, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gurvitch, R., A. Cheung, J. Ye, D. Wood, A. Willson, S. Toggweiler, R. Binder, and J. Webb. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed surgical bioprosthetic valves. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 58:2196–2209, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hakki, A. H., A. S. Iskandrian, C. E. Bemis, D. Kimbiris, G. S. Mintz, B. L. Segal, and C. Brice. A simplified valve formula for the calculation of stenotic cardiac-valve areas. Circulation 63:1050–1055, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hansson, N. C., L. Thuesen, V. E. Hjortdal, J. Leipsic, H. R. Andersen, S. H. Poulsen, J. G. Webb, E. H. Christiansen, L. E. Rasmussen, L. R. Krusell, K. Terp, K. E. Klaaborg, M. Tang, J. F. Lassen, H. E. Botker, and B. L. Norgaard. Three-dimensional multidetector computed tomography versus conventional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for annular sizing in transcatheter aortic valve replacement: influence on postprocedural paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 82:977–986, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hatoum, H., J. A. Crestanello, and L. P. Dasi. Possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis in bioprosthetic aortic valves. N. Engl. J. Med. 374:1591–1591, 2016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hemmann, K., M. Sirotina, S. De Rosa, J. R. Ehrlich, H. Fox, J. Weber, A. Moritz, A. M. Zeiher, I. Hofmann, V. Schächinger, M. Doss, H. Sievert, S. Fichtlscherer, and R. Lehmann. The STS score is the strongest predictor of long-term survival following transcatheter aortic valve implantation, whereas access route (transapical versus transfemoral) has no predictive value beyond the periprocedural phase. Interact. CardioVasc. Thorac. Surg. 17:359–364, 2013.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hoffmayer, K. S., C. Zellner, D. M. Kwan, S. Konety, E. Foster, P. Moore, and Y. Yeghiazarians. Closure of a paravalvular aortic leak with the use of 2 amplatzer devices and real-time 2-and 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. Tex. Heart Inst. J. 38:81–84, 2011.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iqbal, J., and P. W. Serruys. Comparison of medtronic corevalve and edwards SAPIEN XT for transcatheter aortic valve implantation the need for an imaging-based personalized approach in device selection. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 7:293–295, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Jabbour, A., T. F. Ismail, N. Moat, A. Gulati, I. Roussin, F. Alpendurada, B. Park, F. Okoroafor, A. Asgar, S. Barker, S. Davies, S. K. Prasad, M. Rubens, and R. H. Mohiaddin. Multimodality imaging in transcatheter aortic valve implantation and post-procedural aortic regurgitation comparison among cardiovascular magnetic resonance, cardiac computed tomography, and echocardiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 58:2165–2173, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jilaihawi, H., A. Asgar, and R. Bonan. Good outcome and valve function despite medtronic-corevalve underexpansion. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 76:1022–1025, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    John, D., L. Buellesfeld, S. Yuecel, R. Mueller, G. Latsios, H. Beucher, U. Gerckens, and E. Grube. Correlation of device landing zone calcification and acute procedural success in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantations with the self-expanding corevalve prosthesis. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 3:233–243, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kappetein, A. P., S. J. Head, P. Généreux, N. Piazza, N. M. Van Mieghem, E. H. Blackstone, T. G. Brott, D. J. Cohen, D. E. Cutlip, and G.-A. van Es. Updated standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the valve academic research consortium-2 consensus document. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 60:1438–1454, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kheradvar, A., and A. Falahatpisheh. The effects of dynamic saddle annulus and leaflet length on transmitral flow pattern and leaflet stress of a bi-leaflet bioprosthetic mitral valve. J. Heart Valve Dis. 21:225–233, 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kheradvar, A., E. M. Groves, L. P. Dasi, S. H. Alavi, R. Tranquillo, K. J. Grande-Allen, C. A. Simmons, B. Griffith, A. Falahatpisheh, C. J. Goergen, M. R. K. Mofrad, F. Baaijens, S. H. Little, and S. Canic. Emerging trends in heart valve engineering: part I. Solutions for future. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 43:833–843, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kheradvar, A., E. M. Groves, C. J. Goergen, S. H. Alavi, R. Tranquillo, C. A. Simmons, L. P. Dasi, K. J. Grande-Allen, M. R. K. Mofrad, A. Falahatpisheh, B. Griffith, F. Baaijens, S. H. Little, and S. Canic. Emerging trends in heart valve engineering: part II. Novel and standard technologies for aortic valve replacement. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 43:844–857, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kheradvar, A., E. L. Groves, and E. E. Tseng. Proof of concept of FOLDAVALVE a novel 14Fr totally repositionable and retrievable transcatheter aortic valve’. EuroIntervention 11:591–596, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kheradvar, A., J. Kasalko, D. Johnson, and M. Gharib. An in-vitro study of changing profile heights in mitral bioprostheses and their influence on flow. ASAIO J. 52:34–38, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Khoffi, F., F. Heim, N. Chakfe, and J. T. Lee. ‘Transcatheter fiber heart valve: effect of crimping on material performances. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater. 103:1488–1497, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kiefer, P., F. Gruenwald, J. Kempfert, H. Aupperle, J. Seeburger, F. Mohr, and T. Walther. Crimping may affect the durability of transcatheter valves: an experimental analysis. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 92:155–160, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Klotz, S., M. Scharfschwerdt, D. Richardt, and H. H. Sievers. Failed valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 5:591–592, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kodali, S. K., M. R. Williams, C. R. Smith, L. G. Svensson, J. G. Webb, R. R. Makkar, G. P. Fontana, T. M. Dewey, V. H. Thourani, A. D. Pichard, M. Fischbein, W. Y. Szeto, S. Lim, K. L. Greason, P. S. Teirstein, S. C. Malaisrie, P. S. Douglas, R. T. Hahn, B. Whisenant, A. Zajarias, D. L. Wang, J. J. Akin, W. N. Anderson, M. B. Leon, and Investigators Partner Trial. Two-year outcomes after transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement. N. Engl. J. Med. 366:1686–1695, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Koos, R., A. Mahnken, G. Dohmen, K. Brehmer, R. Günther, R. Autschbach, N. Marx, and R. Hoffmann. Association of aortic valve calcification severity with the degree of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Int. J. Cardiol. 150:142–145, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kumar, G., V. Raghav, S. Lerakis, and A. Yoganathan. High transcatheter valve replacement may reduce washout in the aortic sinuses: an in-vitro study. J. Heart Valve Dis. 24:22–29, 2015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Latib, A., T. Naganuma, M. Abdel-Wahab, H. Danenberg, L. Cota, M. Barbanti, H. Baumgartner, A. Finkelstein, V. Legrand, J. S. de Lezo, J. Kefer, D. Messika-Zeitoun, G. Richardt, E. Stabile, G. Kaleschke, A. Vahanian, J. C. Laborde, M. B. Leon, J. G. Webb, V. F. Panoulas, F. Maisano, O. Alfieri, and A. Colombo. Treatment and clinical outcomes of transcatheter heart valve thrombosis. Circulation 8:12, 2015.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Leber, A. W., W. Eichinger, J. Rieber, M. Lieber, S. Schleger, U. Ebersberger, M. Deichstetter, J. Vogel, T. Helmberger, D. Antoni, G. Riess, E. Hoffmann, and A. M. Kasel. MSCT guided sizing of the Edwards Sapien XT TAVI device: impact of different degrees of oversizing on clinical outcome. Int. J. Cardiol. 168:2658–2664, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Leber, A., M. Kasel, T. Ischinger, U. Ebersberger, D. Antoni, M. Schmidt, G. Riess, V. Renz, A. Huber, T. Helmberger, and E. Hoffmann. Aortic valve calcium score as a predictor for outcome after Tavi using the corevalve revalving system. Int. J. Cardiol. 166:652–657, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leipsic, J., T. H. Yang, and J. K. Min. Computed tomographic imaging of transcatheter aortic valve replacement for prediction and prevention of procedural complications. Circulation 6:597–605, 2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Leon, M. B., C. R. Smith, M. J. Mack, R. R. Makkar, L. G. Svensson, S. K. Kodali, V. H. Thourani, E. M. Tuzcu, D. C. Miller, H. C. Herrmann, D. Doshi, D. J. Cohen, A. D. Pichard, S. Kapadia, T. Dewey, V. Babaliaros, W. Y. Szeto, M. R. Williams, D. Kereiakes, A. Zajarias, K. L. Greason, B. K. Whisenant, R. W. Hodson, J. W. Moses, A. Trento, D. L. Brown, W. F. Fearon, P. Pibarot, R. T. Hahn, W. A. Jaber, W. N. Anderson, M. C. Alu, and J. G. Webb. Transcatheter or surgical aortic-valve replacement in intermediate-risk patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 374:1609–1620, 2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lerakis, S., S. S. Hayek, and P. S. Douglas. Paravalvular aortic leak after transcatheter aortic valve replacement current knowledge. Circulation 127:397–407, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Li, K., and W. Sun. Simulated thin pericardial bioprosthetic valve leaflet deformation under static pressure-only loading conditions: implications for percutaneous valves. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38:2690–2701, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Linke, A., F. Woitek, M. W. Merx, C. Schiefer, S. Mobius-Winkler, D. Holzhey, A. Rastan, J. Ender, T. Walther, M. Kelm, F. W. Mohr, and G. Schuler. Valve-in-valve implantation of medtronic corevalve prosthesis in patients with failing bioprosthetic aortic valves. Circulation 5:689–697, 2012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Litmanovich, D., E. Ghersin, D. Burke, J. Popma, M. Shahrzad, and A. Bankier. Imaging in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR): role of the radiologist. Insights Into Imaging 5:123–145, 2014.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Makkar, R. R., G. Fontana, H. Jilaihawi, T. Chakravarty, K. F. Kofoed, O. de Backer, F. M. Asch, C. E. Ruiz, N. T. Olsen, A. Trento, J. Friedman, D. Berman, W. Cheng, M. Kashif, V. Jelnin, C. A. Kliger, H. Guo, A. D. Pichard, N. J. Weissman, S. Kapadia, E. Manasse, D. L. Bhatt, M. B. Leon, and L. Sondergaard. Possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis in bioprosthetic aortic valves. N. Engl. J. Med. 373:2015–2024, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Makkar, R. R., G. P. Fontana, H. Jilaihawi, S. Kapadia, A. D. Pichard, P. S. Douglas, V. H. Thourani, V. C. Babaliaros, J. G. Webb, H. C. Herrmann, J. E. Bavaria, S. Kodali, D. L. Brown, B. Bowers, T. M. Dewey, L. G. Svensson, M. Tuzcu, J. W. Moses, M. R. Williams, R. J. Siegel, J. J. Akin, W. N. Anderson, S. Pocock, C. R. Smith, M. B. Leon, and Investigators Partner Trial. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement for inoperable severe aortic stenosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 366:1696–1704, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Martin, C., T. Pham, and W. Sun. Significant differences in the material properties between aged human and porcine aortic tissues. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 40:28–34, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martin, C., and W. Sun. Comparison of transcatheter aortic valve and surgical bioprosthetic valve durability: a fatigue simulation study. J. Biomech. 48:3026–3034, 2015.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Masri, A., P. Schoenhagen, L. Svensson, S. R. Kapadia, B. P. Griffin, E. M. Tuzcu, and M. Y. Desai. Dynamic characterization of aortic annulus geometry and morphology with multimodality imaging: predictive value for aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 147:1847–1854, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Meredith, I. T., K. L. Hood, N. Haratani, D. J. Allocco, and K. D. Dawkins. Boston scientific lotus valve. EuroIntervention 8(Suppl Q):Q70–Q74, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Metzner, A., U. A. Stock, K. Iino, G. Fischer, T. Huemme, J. Boldt, J. H. Braesen, B. Bein, J. Renner, and J. Cremer. Percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement: autologous tissue-engineered valved stents. Cardiovasc. Res. 88:453–461, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Midha, P. A., V. Raghav, J. F. Condado, S. Arjunon, D. E. Uceda, S. Lerakis, V. H. Thourani, V. Babaliaros, and A. P. Yoganathan. How can we help a patient with a small failing bioprosthesis? An in vitro case study. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 8:2026–2033, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Midha, P. A., V. Raghav, J. F. Condado, I. U. Okafor, S. Lerakis, V. H. Thourani, V. Babaliaros, and A. P. Yoganathan. Valve Type, size, and deployment location affect hemodynamics in an in vitro valve-in-valve model. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 9:1618–1628, 2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Midha, P. A., V. Raghav, I. Okafor, and A. P. Yoganathan. The effect of valve-in-valve implantation height on sinus flow’. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2016. doi:10.1007/s10439-016-1642-2.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Moat, N. E., P. Ludman, M. A. de Belder, B. Bridgewater, A. D. Cunningham, C. P. Young, M. Thomas, J. Kovac, T. Spyt, P. A. MacCarthy, O. Wendler, D. Hildick-Smith, S. W. Davies, U. Trivedi, D. J. Blackman, R. D. Levy, S. J. D. Brecker, A. Baumbach, T. Daniel, H. Gray, and M. J. Mullen. Long-term outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis the UK TAVI (United Kingdom transcatheter aortic valve implantation) registry. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 58:2130–2138, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morganti, S., M. Conti, M. Aiello, A. Valentini, A. Mazzola, A. Reali, and F. Auricchio. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation through patient-specific finite element analysis: two clinical cases. J. Biomech. 47:2547–2555, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Muñoz-García, A. J., J. H. Alonso-Briales, M. F. Jiménez-Navarro, J. Caballero-Borrego, A. J. Domínguez-Franco, I. Rodríguez-Bailón, M. Such-Martínez, J. M. Hernández-García, and E. de Teresa-Galván. Mechanisms, treatment and course of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after percutaneous implantation of the corevalve aortic prosthesis. Int. J. Cardiol. 149:389–392, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mylotte, D., A. Andalib, P. Theriault-Lauzier, M. Dorfmeister, M. Girgis, W. Alharbi, M. Chetrit, C. Galatas, S. Mamane, I. Sebag, J. Buithieu, L. Bilodeau, B. de Varennes, K. Lachapelle, R. Lange, G. Martucci, R. Virmani, and N. Piazza. Transcatheter heart valve failure: a systematic review. Eur. Heart J. 36:1306–1327, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mylotte, D., and N. Piazza. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement failure deja vu ou jamais vu? Circulation 8:e002531, 2015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Nashef, S. A. M., F. Roques, P. Michel, E. Gauducheau, S. Lemeshow, R. Salamon, the Euro SCORE study, and the Euro SCORE study. European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (Euroscore)’. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 16:9–13, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nazif, T. M., J. M. Dizon, R. T. Hahn, K. Xu, V. Babaliaros, P. S. Douglas, M. F. El-Chami, H. C. Herrmann, M. Mack, R. R. Makkar, D. C. Miller, A. Pichard, E. M. Tuzcu, W. Y. Szeto, J. G. Webb, J. W. Moses, C. R. Smith, M. R. Williams, M. B. Leon, and S. K. Kodali. Predictors and clinical outcomes of permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the partner (placement of aortic transcatheter valves) trial and registry. JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 8:60–69, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Neragi-Miandoab, S., and R. E. Michler. A review of most relevant complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. ISRN Cardiol. 2013:956252, 2012.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nishimura, R. A., C. M. Otto, R. O. Bonow, B. A. Carabello, J. P. Erwin, R. A. Guyton, P. T. O’Gara, C. E. Ruiz, N. J. Skubas, and P. Sorajja. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63:e57–e185, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Noble, S., A. Basmadjian, and R. Ibrahim. Transcatheter prosthetic paravalvular leak closure. Cardiovasc. Med. 15:245–252, 2012.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ong, S. H., R. Mueller, and S. Iversen. Early calcific degeneration of a corevalve transcatheter aortic bioprosthesis. Eur. Heart J. 33:586, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rahimtoola, S. H. Problem of valve prosthesis patient mismatch. Circulation 58:20–24, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ramineni, R., A. Almomani, A. Kumar, and M. Ahmad. Role of multimodality imaging in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Echocardiography A 32:677–698, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Richardt, D., T. Hanke, and H. H. Sievers. Two cases of heart failure after implantation of a corevalve prosthesis. N. Engl. J. Med. 372:1079–1081, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rodes-Cabau, J., E. Dumont, and D. Doyle. “Valve-in-valve” for the treatment of paravalvular leaks following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 74:1116–1119, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Roques, F., P. Michel, A. R. Goldstone, and S. A. M. Nashef. The logistic euroscore. Eur. Heart J. 24:882–882, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ruiz, C. E., M. Iemura, S. Medie, P. Varga, W. G. VanAlstine, S. Mack, A. Deligio, N. Fearnot, U. H. Beier, and D. Pavcnik. Transcatheter placement of a low-profile biodegradable pulmonary valve made of small intestinal submucosa: a long-term study in a swine model. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 130:477–484, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ruiz, C. E., V. Jelnin, I. Kronzon, Y. Dudiy, R. Del Valle-Fernandez, B. N. Einhorn, P. T. L. Chiam, C. Martinez, R. Eiros, G. Roubin, and H. A. Cohen. Clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous closure of periprosthetic paravalvular leaks. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 58:2210–2217, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Russ, C., R. Hopf, S. Hirsch, S. Sundermann, V. Falk, G. Szekely, and M. Gessat. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation under consideration of leaflet calcification. Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2013:711–714, 2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schewel, D., C. Frerker, J. Schewel, P. Wohlmuth, F. Meincke, T. Thielsen, F. Kreidel, K. H. Kuck, and U. Schafer. Clinical impact of paravalvular leaks on biomarkers and survival after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 85:502–514, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schmidt, D., P. E. Dijkman, A. Driessen-Mol, R. Stenger, C. Mariani, A. Puolakka, M. Rissanen, T. Deichmann, B. Odermatt, and B. Weber. Minimally-invasive implantation of living tissue engineered heart valves: a comprehensive approach from autologous vascular cells to stem cells. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 56:510–520, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schoen, F. J., and R. J. Levy. Calcification of tissue heart valve substitutes: progress toward understanding and prevention. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 79:1072–1080, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schultz, C. J., A. Weustink, N. Piazza, A. Otten, N. Mollet, G. Krestin, R. J. van Geuns, P. de Feyter, P. W. J. Serruys, and P. de Jaegere. Geometry and degree of apposition of the corevalve revalving system with multislice computed tomography after implantation in patients with aortic stenosis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 54:911–918, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sedaghat, A., J. M. Sinning, M. Utzenrath, P. F. Ghalati, C. Schmitz, N. Werner, G. Nickenig, E. Grube, S. Ensminger, U. Steinseifer, and M. Kuetting. Hydrodynamic performance of the medtronic corevalve and the Edwards Sapien Xt transcatheter heart valve in surgical bioprostheses: an in vitro valve-in-valve model. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 101:118–124, 2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sellaro, T., D. Hildebrand, Q. Lu, N. Vyavahare, M. Scott, and M. Sacks. Effects of collagen fiber orientation on the response of biologically derived soft tissue biomaterials to cyclic loading. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part A 80A:194–205, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sheriff, J., D. Bluestein, G. Girdhar, and J. Jesty. High-shear stress sensitizes platelets to subsequent low-shear conditions. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38:1442–1450, 2010.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Simonato, M., and D. Dvir. In vitro evaluation of implantation depth in valve-in-valve using different transcatheter heart valves. Euro Interv. 12:909–917, 2016.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sinha, A. and A. Kheradvar. The effect of stent-crimping of transcatheter heart valves on premature leaflet calcification. In: The Heart Valve Society inaugural scientific meeting (Monte Carlo, Monaco: 2015).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sinha, A., and A. Kheradvar. Abstract 17659: leaflet calcification and matrix damage due to transcatheter heart valve crimping. Circulation 132:A17659, 2015.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sinning, J. M., M. Vasa-Nicotera, D. Chin, C. Hammerstingl, A. Ghanem, J. Bence, J. Kovac, E. Grube, G. Nickenig, and N. Werner. Evaluation and management of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 62:11–20, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sinning, J.-M., N. Werner, G. Nickenig, and E. Grube. Next-generation transcatheter heart valves: current trials in Europe and the USA. Methodist DeBakey Cardiovasc. J. 8:9–12, 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Sirois, E., Q. Wang, and W. Sun. Fluid simulation of a transcatheter aortic valve deployment into a patient-specific aortic root. Cardiovasc. Eng. Technol. 2:186–195, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Smolka, G., and W. Wojakowski. (2010) Paravalvular leak–important complication after implantation of prosthetic valve. In: ESC Nov (2010).Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Smuts, A. N., D. C. Blaine, C. Scheffer, H. Weich, A. F. Doubell, and K. H. Dellimore. Application of finite element analysis to the design of tissue leaflets for a percutaneous aortic valve. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 4:85–98, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Spriestersbach, H., L. Bruder, B. Sanders, E. Fioretta, T. Radtke, M. Bartosch, H. Peters, K. Brakmann, M. Sigler, and L. Frese. One year in-vivo functionality of transvenously implanted tissue-engineered pulmonary heart valves in sheep. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 64:OP157, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stahli, B., W. Maier, R. Corti, T. Luscher, R. Jenni, and F. Tanner. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: mechanisms and implications. Cardiovasc. Diagn. Therapy 3:15–22, 2013.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Steinberg, B. A., J. K. Harrison, C. Frazier-Mills, G. C. Hughes, and J. P. Piccini. Cardiac conduction system disease after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Am. Heart J. 164:664–671, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stock, U. A., I. Degenkolbe, T. Attmann, K. Schenke-Layland, S. Freitag, and G. Lutter. Prevention of device-related tissue damage during percutaneous deployment of tissue-engineered heart valves. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 131:1323–1330, 2006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stock, S., M. Scharfschwerdt, R. Meyer-Saraei, D. Richardt, E. I. Charitos, H.-H. Sievers, and T. Hanke. Does undersizing of transcatheter aortic valve bioprostheses during valve-in-valve implantation avoid coronary obstruction? An in vitro study. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 64:ePP43, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sun, W., A. Abad, and M. Sacks. Simulated bioprosthetic heart valve deformation under quasi-static loading. J. Biomech. Eng. 127:905–914, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sun, W., K. Li, and E. Sirois. Simulated elliptical bioprosthetic valve deformation: implications for asymmetric transcatheter valve deployment. J. Biomech. 43:3085–3090, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sun, W., M. Sacks, G. Fulchiero, J. Lovekamp, N. Vyavahare, and M. Scott. Response of heterograft heart valve biomaterials to moderate cyclic loading. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A 69A:658–669, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tamburino, C., D. Capodanno, A. Ramondo, A. S. Petronio, F. Ettori, G. Santoro, S. Klugmann, F. Bedogni, F. Maisano, A. Marzocchi, A. Poli, D. Antoniucci, M. Napodano, M. De Carlo, C. Fiorina, and G. P. Ussia. Incidence and predictors of early and late mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 663 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Circulation 123:299–308, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Taramasso, M., A. Pozzoli, A. Latib, G. La Canna, A. Colombo, F. Maisano, and O. Alfieri. New devices for Tavi: technologies and initial clinical experiences. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 11:157–167, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Thubrikar, M. J., J. D. Deck, J. Aouad, and S. P. Nolan. Role of mechanical stress in calcification of aortic bioprosthetic valves. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 86:115–125, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Thyregod, H. G. H., D. A. Steinbrüchel, N. Ihlemann, T. A. Ngo, H. Nissen, B. J. Kjeldsen, Y. Chang, P. B. Hansen, P. S. Olsen, and L. Søndergaard. No clinical effect of prosthesis–patient mismatch after transcatheter versus surgical aortic valve replacement in intermediate-and low-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis at mid-term follow-up: an analysis of the notion trial. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 2016. doi:10.1093/ejcts/ezw095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Treede, H., F. W. Mohr, S. Baldus, A. Rastan, S. Ensminger, M. Arnold, J. Kempfert, and H. R. Figulla. Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the JenaValve system: acute and 30-day results of the multicentre ce-mark study. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 41:e131–e138, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tuzcu, E. M. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement malposition and embolization: innovation brings solutions also new challenges. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 72:579–580, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tuzcu, E. M., S. R. Kapadia, and L. G. Svensson. Valve in valve another milestone for transcatheter valve therapy. Circulation 126:2280–2282, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Van der Boon, R. M. A., N. M. Van Mieghem, D. A. Theuns, R.-J. Nuis, S. T. Nauta, P. W. Serruys, L. Jordaens, R. T. van Domburg, and P. P. T. de Jaegere. Pacemaker dependency after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the self-expanding medtronic corevalve system. Int. J. Cardiol. 168:1269–1273, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wang, Q., S. Kodali, C. Primiano, and W. Sun. Simulations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: implications for aortic root rupture. Biomech. Model. Mechanobiol. 14:29–38, 2015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wang, Q., C. Primiano, R. McKay, S. Kodali, and W. Sun. Ct image-based engineering analysis of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging 7:526–528, 2014.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wang, Q., E. Sirois, and W. Sun. Patient-specific modeling of biomechanical interaction in transcatheter aortic valve deployment. J. Biomech. 45:1965–1971, 2012.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wasowicz, M., M. Meineri, G. Djaiani, N. Mitsakakis, N. Hegazi, W. Xu, R. Katznelson, and J. M. Karski. Early complications and immediate postoperative outcomes of paravalvular leaks after valve replacement surgery. J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth. 25:610–614, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Webb, J. G., and D. Dvir. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement for bioprosthetic aortic valve failure the valve-in-valve procedure. Circulation 127:2542–2550, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Webb, J. G., and D. A. Wood. Current status of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 60:483–492, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Webb, J. G., D. A. Wood, J. Ye, R. Gurvitch, J. B. Masson, J. Rodes-Cabau, M. Osten, E. Horlick, O. Wendler, E. Dumont, R. G. Carere, N. Wijesinghe, F. Nietlispach, M. Johnson, C. R. Thompson, R. Moss, J. Leipsic, B. Munt, S. V. Lichtenstein, and A. Cheung. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed bioprosthetic heart valves. Circulation 121:1848–1857, 2010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Weber, B., P. E. Dijkman, J. Scherman, B. Sanders, M. Y. Emmert, J. Grünenfelder, R. Verbeek, M. Bracher, M. Black, and T. Franz. Off-the-shelf human decellularized tissue-engineered heart valves in a non-human primate model. Biomaterials 34:7269–7280, 2013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wenaweser, P., L. Buellesfeld, U. Gerckens, and E. Grube. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement for severe aortic regurgitation in degenerated bioprosthesis: the first valve procedure using the corevalve revalving system. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 70:760–764, 2007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Willson, A. B., J. Rodes-Cabau, D. A. Wood, J. Leipsic, A. Cheung, S. Toggweiler, R. K. Binder, M. Freeman, R. DeLarochelliere, R. Moss, L. Nombela-Franco, E. Dumont, K. Szummer, G. P. Fontana, R. Makkar, and J. G. Webb. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement with the St. Jude medical portico valve: first-in-human experience. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 60:581–586, 2012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Witkowski, A., J. Jastrzebski, M. Dabrowski, and Z. Chmielak. Second transcatheter aortic valve implantation for treatment of suboptimal function of previously implanted prosthesis: review of the literature. J. Interv. Cardiol. 27:300–307, 2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wood, D. A., L. F. Tops, J. R. Mayo, S. Pasupati, M. J. Schalij, K. Humphries, M. Lee, A. Al Ali, B. Munt, R. Moss, C. R. Thompson, J. J. Bax, and J. G. Webb. Role of multislice computed tomography in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Am. J. Cardiol. 103:1295–1301, 2009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Wootton, D. M., and D. N. Ku. Fluid mechanics of vascular systems, diseases, and thrombosis. Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1:299–329, 1999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Young, E., J. F. Chen, O. Dong, S. Q. Gao, A. Massiello, and K. Fukamachi. Transcatheter heart valve with variable geometric configuration. In vitro evaluation. Artif. Organs 35:1151–1159, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Zebhi, B., and Dasi, L. P. Biomechanical analysis of aortic valve calcification and post-procedural paravalvular leak. Colorado State University, 2016, p. 74.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zegdi, R., P. Bruneval, D. Blanchard, and J.-N. Fabiani. Evidence of leaflet injury during percutaneous aortic valve deployment. Eur. J. Cardiothorac. Surg. 40:257–260, 2011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Zegdi, R., V. Ciobotaru, M. Noghin, G. Sleilaty, A. Lafont, C. Latrémouille, A. Deloche, and J.-N. Fabiani. Is it reasonable to treat all calcified stenotic aortic valves with a valved stent?: Results from a human anatomic study in adults. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 51:579–584, 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Zenses, A. S., J. Mitchell, M. Evin, V. Stanova, J. F. Obadia, P. Pibarot, and R. Rieu. In vitro study of valve-in-valve performance with the corevalve self-expandable prosthesis implanted in different positions and sizes within the trifecta surgical heart valve. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 18:2086–2087, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lakshmi P. Dasi
    • 1
  • Hoda Hatoum
    • 1
  • Arash Kheradvar
    • 2
  • Ramin Zareian
    • 2
  • S. Hamed Alavi
    • 2
  • Wei Sun
    • 3
  • Caitlin Martin
    • 3
  • Thuy Pham
    • 3
  • Qian Wang
    • 3
  • Prem A. Midha
    • 3
  • Vrishank Raghav
    • 3
  • Ajit P. Yoganathan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dorothy Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.The Edwards Lifesciences Center for Advanced Cardiovascular Technology, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations