Balonov, K., A. D. Miller, A. Lisbon, and A. M. Kaynar. A novel method of continuous measurement of head of bed elevation in ventilated patients. Intensiv. Care Med. 33:1050–1054, 2007.
Bechert, W. D., M. Bruse, and W. Hage. Experiments with three-dimensional riblets as an idealized model of shark skin. Exp. Fluids 28:403–412, 2000.
Berra, L., A. Coppadoro, E. A. Bittner, T. Kolobow, P. Laquerriere, J. R. Pohlmann, S. Bramati, J. Moss, and A. Pesenti. A clinical assessment of the Mucus Shaver: A device to keep the endotracheal tube free from secretions. Crit. Care Med. 40:119–124, 2012.
Bock, K. R., P. Silver, M. Rom, and M. Sagy. Reduction in tracheal lumen due to endotracheal intubation and its calculated clinical significance. CHEST J. 118:468–472, 2000.
Boqué, M. C., B. Gualis, A. Sandiumenge, and J. Rello. Endotracheal tube intraluminal diameter narrowing after mechanical ventilation: Use of acoustic reflectometry. Intensiv. Care Med. 30:2204–2209, 2004.
Branson, R. D. Secretion management in the mechanically ventilated patient. Respir. Care 52:1328–1347, 2007.
Branson, R. D., D. Gomaa, and D. Rodriquez. Management of the Artificial airway. Respir. Care 59:974–990, 2014.
Carman, M. L., T. G. Estes, A. W. Feinberg, J. F. Schumacher, W. Wilkerson, L. H. Wilson, M. E. Callow, J. A. Callow, and A. B. Brennan. Engineered antifouling microtopgraphies—correlating wettability with cell attachment. Biofouling 22:11–21, 2006.
Chastre, J., and J. Y. Fagon. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 165:867–903, 2002.
Coppadoro, A., G. Bellani, A. Bronco, R. Borsa, A. Lucchini, S. Bramati, L. Avalli, R. Marcolin, and A. Pesenti. Measurement of endotracheal tube secretions volume by micro computed tomography (MicroCT) scan: An experimental and clinical study. BMC Anesthesiol. 14:22, 2014.
Danin, P. E., E. Girou, P. Legrand, B. Louis, R. Fodil, C. Christov, J. Devaquet, D. Isabey, and L. Brochard. Description and microbiology of endotracheal tube biofilm in mechanically ventilated subjects. Respir. Care 60:21–29, 2015.
Dasta, J. F., T. P. McLaughlin, S. H. Mody, and C. T. Piech. Daily cost of an intensive care unit day: The contribution of mechanical ventilation. Crit. Care Med. 33:1266–1271, 2005.
Decker, J. T., J. T. Sheats, and A. B. Brennan. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: Surface pattern effects on cell distribution. Langmuir 30:15212–15218, 2014.
E2647-13 A. Standard test method for quantification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm growth using drip flow biofilm reactor with low shear and continuous flow, 2013.
El-Khatib, M. F., A. Husari, G. W. Jamaleddine, C. M. Ayoub, and P. Bou-Khalil. Changes in resistances of endotracheal tubes with reductions in the cross-sectional area. Eur. J. Anaesthesiol. 25:275–279, 2008.
Ezingeard, E., E. Diconne, S. Guyomarc’h, C. Venet, D. Page, P. Gery, R. Vermesch, M. Bertrand, J. Pingat, B. Tardy, J.-C. Bertrand, and F. Zeni. Weaning from mechanical ventilation with pressure support in patients failing a T-tube trial of spontaneous breathing. Intensiv. Care Med. 32:165–169, 2006.
Frengley, R. W., D. N. Closey, J. W. Sleigh, and J. M. Torrance. The effect of closed system suction on airway pressures when using the Servo 300 ventilator. Crit. Care Resusc. 3:230–235, 2001.
Kawati, R., M. Lattuada, U. Sjöstrand, J. Guttmann, G. Hedenstierna, A. Helmer, and M. Lichtwarck-Aschoff. Peak airway pressure increase is a late warning sign of partial endotracheal tube obstruction whereas change in expiratory flow is an early warning sign. Anesth. Analg. 100:889–893, 2005.
Kirton, O. C., M. J. Banner, A. Axelrad, and G. Drugas. Detection of unsuspected imposed work of breathing: Case reports. Crit. Care Med. 21:790–795, 1993.
Kirton, O. C., C. B. DeHaven, J. P. Morgan, J. Windsor, and J. M. Civetta. ELevated imposed work of breathing masquerading as ventilator weaning intolerance. Chest 108:1021–1025, 1995.
Kuchma, S. L., K. M. Brothers, J. H. Merritt, N. T. Liberati, F. M. Ausubel, and G. A. O’Toole. BifA, a cyclic-Di-GMP phosphodiesterase, inversely regulates biofilm formation and swarming motility by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. J Bacteriol. 189:8165–8178, 2007.
Lai, S. K., Y.-Y. Wang, D. Wirtz, and J. Hanes. Micro- and macrorheology of mucus. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 61:86–100, 2009.
Li, Bassi G., F. Curto, A. Zanella, M. Stylianou, and T. Kolobow. A 72-hour study to test the efficacy and safety of the “Mucus Slurper” in mechanically ventilated sheep. Crit. Care Med. 35:906–911, 2007.
Long, C. J., J. A. Finlay, M. E. Callow, J. A. Callow, and A. B. Brennan. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: Mapping preferential and inhibitory microenvironments for zoospore attachment. Biofouling 26:941–952, 2010.
Long, C. J., J. F. Schumacher, P. Robinson, II, J. A. Finaly, M. E. Callow, J. A. Callow, and A. B. Brennan. A model that predicts the attachment behavior of Ulva linza zoospores on surface topography. Biofouling 26:411–419, 2010.
Magin, C. M., J. A. Finlay, G. Clay, M. E. Callow, J. A. Callow, and A. B. Brennan. Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: Refinement of an attachment model. Biomacromolecules 12:915–922, 2011.
Magin, C. M., C. J. Long, S. P. Cooper, L. K. Ista, G. P. Lopez, and A. B. Brennan. Engineered antifouling microtopographies: The role of Reynolds number in a model that predicts attachment of zoospores of Ulva and cells of Cobetia marina. Biofouling 26:719–727, 2010.
May, R., M. Hoffman, M. Sogo, A. Parker, G. O’Toole, A. Brennan, and S. Reddy. Micro-patterned surfaces reduce bacterial colonization and biofilm formation in vitro: Potential for enhancing endotracheal tube designs. Clin. Transl. Med. 3:8, 2014.
Mietto, C., K. Foley, L. Salerno, J. Oleksak, R. Pinciroli, J. Goverman, and L. Berra. Removal of endotracheal tube obstruction with a secretion clearance device. Respir. Care 59:e122–e126, 2014.
Mietto, C., R. Pinciroli, N. Patel, and L. Berra. Ventilator associated pneumonia: Evolving definitions and preventive strategies. Respir. Care 58:990–1007, 2013.
Mietto, C., R. Pinciroli, A. Piriyapatsom, J. G. Thomas, L. Bry, M. L. Delaney, A. Du Bois, J. Truelove, J. B. Ackman, G. R. Wojtkiewicz, M. Nahrendorf, R. M. Kacmarek, and L. Berra. Tracheal tube obstruction in mechanically ventilated patients assessed by high-resolution computed tomography. Anesthesiology 121:1226–1235, 2014.
Oto, J., H. Imanaka, E. Nakataki, R. Ono, and M. Nishimura. Potential inadequacy of automatic tube compensation to decrease inspiratory work load after at least 48 hours of endotracheal tube use in the clinical setting. Respir. Care 57:697–703, 2012.
Pardee, A. B., F. Jacob, and J. Monod. The genetic control and cytoplasmic expression of “inducibility” in the synthesis of β-galactosidase by E. coli. J. Mol. Biol. 1:165–178, 1959.
Pedersen, C. M., M. Rosendahl-Nielsen, J. Hjermind, and I. Egerod. Endotracheal suctioning of the adult intubated patient—What is the evidence? Intensiv. Crit. Care Nurs. 25:21–30, 2009.
Pinheiro, J., D. Bates, S. DebRoy, D. Sarkar, and R-Core-Team. nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. Vienna: Springer, 2013.
Rello, J., B. Afessa, A. Anzueto, A. C. Arroliga, M. E. Olson, M. I. Restrepo, S. S. Talsma, R. L. Bracken, and M. H. Kollef. Activity of a silver-coated endotracheal tube in preclinical models of ventilator-associated pneumonia and a study after extubation. Crit. Care Med. 38:1135–1140, 2010.
Rumbak, M. J., F. W. Walsh, W. M. Anderson, M. W. Rolfe, and D. A. Solomon. Significant tracheal obstruction causing failure to wean in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: A forgotten complication of long-term mechanical ventilation. Chest 115:1092–1095, 1999.
Samet, J. M., and P.-W. Cheng. The role of airway Mucus in pulmonary toxicoloy. Environ. Health Perspect. 102:89–103, 1994.
Schumacher, J. F., M. L. Carman, T. G. Estes, A. W. Feinberg, L. H. Wilson, M. E. Callow, J. A. Callow, J. A. Finlay, and A. B. Brennan. Engineered antifouling microtopographies—effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva. Biofouling 23:55–62, 2007.
Schumann, S., M. Lichtwarck-Aschoff, C. Haberthür, C. A. Stahl, K. Möller, and J. Guttmann. Detection of partial endotracheal tube obstruction by forced pressure oscillations. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 155:227–233, 2007.
Sriramulu, D. D., H. Lünsdorf, J. S. Lam, and U. Römling. Microcolony formation: a novel biofilm model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the cystic fibrosis lung. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:667–676, 2005.
Stenqvist, O., S. Lindgren, S. Kárason, S. Söndergaard, and S. Lundin. Warning! suctioning. A lung model evaluation of closed suctioning systems. Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 45:167–172, 2001.
Tanios, M. A., M. L. Nevins, K. P. Hendra, P. Cardinal, J. E. Allan, E. N. Naumova, and S. K. Epstein. A randomized, controlled trial of the role of weaning predictors in clinical decision making. Crit. Care Med. 34:2530–2535, 2006.
Team R. C. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: Springer, 2013.
Thomas, J. The Role of Biofilms in Device-Related Infections: Biofilms and Ventilation. New York: Springer, 2009.
Trawoger, R., T. Kolobow, M. Cereda, and M. E. Sparacino. Tracheal mucus velocity remains normal in healthy sheep intubated with a new endotracheal tube with a novel laryngeal seal. Anesthesiology 86:1140–1144, 1997.
Tung, A., and S. E. Morgan. Modeling the effect of progressive endotracheal tube occlusion on tidal volume in pressure-control mode. Anesth. Analg 95:192–197, 2002.
Valentini, I., E. Tonveronachi, C. Gregoretti, C. Mega, L. Fasano, L. Pisani, and S. Nava. Different tracheotomy tube diameters influence diaphragmatic effort and indices of weanability in difficult to wean patients. Respir. Care 57:2012–2018, 2012.
Villafane, M., G. Cinnella, F. Lofaso, D. Isabey, A. Harf, F. Lemaire, and L. Brochard. Gradual reduction of endotracheal tube diameter during mechanical ventilation via different humidification devices. Anesthesiology 85:1341–1349, 1996.
Williams, Z., R. Chan, and E. Kelly. A simple device to increase rates of compliance in maintaining 30-degree head-of-bed elevation in ventilated patients. Crit. Care Med. 36:1155–1157, 2008.
Wilson, A. M., D. M. Gray, and J. G. Thomas. Increases in endotracheal tube resistance are unpredictable relative to duration of intubation. CHEST J. 136:1006–1013, 2009.