Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 2794–2804 | Cite as

Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity

Article

Abstract

Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.

Keywords

Crash test dummy Ankle Range of motion Leg Injury Children Biofidelity 

Abbreviations

ATD

Anthropomorphic test device

ATD-LE

Abbreviation for the new prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg being evaluated in this study

BPB

Belt positioning booster

CRS

Child restraint system

CVD

Child volunteer data

DF

Dorsiflexion

HIII

The abbreviation used for the standard Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD which was used for comparison in this study

KBA

Knee-bolster airbag

MVC

Motor vehicle crash

PF

Plantar flexion

ROM

Range of motion

References

  1. 1.
    Arbogast, K. B., J. S. Jermakian, M. J. Kallan, and D. R. Durbin. Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment. J. Pediatr. 124(5):1281–1286, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennett, T. D., R. Kaufman, M. Schiff, C. Mock, and L. Quan. Crash analysis of lower extremity injuries in children restrained in forward-facing car seats during front and rear impacts. J. Trauma 61(3):592–597, 2006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bing, J., and J. Bolte. Pediatric Lower Extremity: Potential Risks and Testing Concepts. [Master’s thesis]. Columbus: Ohio State University, 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boucher, L.C., A.M.W. Chaudhari, Y.S. Kang, and J.H. Bolte IV. Range of Motion and Stiffness of the Pediatric Ankle and Implications for Current ATDs. International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden. IRC13-28: 195–207, 2013. Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, J. K., Y. Jing, S. Wang, and P. F. Ehrlich. Patterns of severe injury in pediatric car crash victims: Crash Injury Research Engineering Network database. J. Pediatr. Surg. 41(2):362–367, 2006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bulger, E. M., R. Kaufman, and C. Mock. Childhood crash injury patterns associated with restraint misuse: implications for field triage. Prehosp. Disaster Med. 23(1):9–15, 2008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Durbin, D. American Academy of Pediatrics Technical Report-Child passenger safety. J. Pediatr. 127(4):e1050–e1066, 2011. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Durbin, D., M. Elliott, and F. Winston. Belt-positioning booster seats and reduction in risk of injury among children in vehicle crashes. JAMA 289(21):2835–2840, 2003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glass, R. J., M. Segio-Gomez, and J. D. Graham. Child passenger safety: decisions about seating location, airbag exposure, and restraint use. Risk Anal. 20(2):521–527, 2000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holbrook, T. L., D. B. Hoyt, R. Coimbra, B. Potenza, M. J. Sise, D. I. Sack, and J. P. Anderson. Trauma in adolescence causes long-term marked deficits in quality of life: adolescent children do not recover preinjury quality of life or function up to two years post injury compared to national norms. J. Trauma 62(3):577–583, 2007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hunter, I. W., and R. E. Kearney. Dynamics of human ankle stiffness: variation with mean ankle torque. J. Biomech. 15(10):747–752, 1982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ivarsson, B.J., J.R. Crandall, D. Longhitano, and M. Okamoto. Lateral injury criteria for the 6-year-old pedestrian—Part II: Criteria for the upper and lower extremities. SAE International. Paper #2004:01-1755, 2003.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jermakian, J. S., C. M. Locey, and L. J. Haughey. Lower extremity injuries in children seated in forward facing child restraint systems. Traffic Inj. Prev. 8(2):171–179, 2007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnston, C., F. P. Rivara, and R. Soderberg. Children in car crashes: analysis of data for injury and use of restraints. J. Pediatr. 93(6):960–965, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kay, R. M., and C. W. Tang. Pediatric foot fractures: evaluation and treatment. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 9:308–319, 2001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kearney, R. E., and I. W. Hunter. Dynamics of human ankle stiffness: variation with displacement amplitude. J. Biomech. 15(10):753–756, 1982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lapner, P. C., M. McKay, A. Howard, B. Gardner, A. Greman, and M. Letts. Children in crashes: mechanism of injury and restraint systems. Can. J. Surg. 44(6):445–449, 2001.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leary, J. T., M. Handling, M. Talerico, L. Yong, and J. A. Bowe. Physeal fractures of the distal tibia: predictive factors for premature physeal closure and growth arrest. J. Pediatr. Orthop. 29:356–361, 2009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Meier, R., C. Krettek, K. Grimme, G. Regel, D. Remmers, P. Harwood, and H. C. Pape. The multiply injured child. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 432:127–131, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mertz, H.J. A procedure for normalizing impact response data. SAE. 984:#840884, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mertz, H. J., A. L. Irwin, and P. Prasad. Biomechanical and scaling bases for frontal and side impact injury assessment reference values. STAPP Car Crash J. 47:155–188, 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Booster Seat Effectiveness: Estimates Based on CDS and State Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. DOT HS 811 338, 2010.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Traffic Safety Facts 2012. US Department of Transportation. DOT HS 812 032, 2012.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Norkin, C. C., and D. J. White. Measurement of Joint Motion: A Guide to Goniometry (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, pp. 269–289, 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Neil, J., D. M. Daniels, J. L. Talty, and M. J. Bull. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Accid. Anal. Prev. 41:425–429, 2009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pickrell, T.M., and T.J. Ye. Occupant restraint use in 2011: results from the National Occupant Protection Use Survey Controlled Intersection Study. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. DOT HS 811 69, 2013.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Quinones-Hinojosa, A., P. Jun, G. T. Manley, M. M. Knudson, and N. Gupta. Airbag deployment and improperly restrained children: a lethal combination. J. Trauma 59(3):729–733, 2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rhomiller, M. T., T. P. Gaynor, and J. Pawelek. Salter-Harris I and II of the distal tibia: does mechanism of injury relate to premature physeal closure? J. Pediatr. Orthop. 26(3):322–328, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ribbans, W. J., R. Natarajan, and S. Alavala. Pediatric foot fractures. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 432:107–115, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riemann, B. L., R. G. DeMont, K. Ryu, and S. M. Lephart. The effects of sex, joint angle, and the gastrocnemius muscle on passive ankle joint complex stiffness. J. Athl. Train. 36(4):369–377, 2001.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Snyder R.G., L. W. Schneider, C.L. Owings, et al. Anthropometry of infants, children, and youths to age 18 for product safety design. Highway Safety Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI. UM-HSRI-77-17, 1977.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Winthrop, A. L., K. J. Brasel, L. Stahovic, J. Paulson, B. Schneeberger, and E. M. Kuhn. Quality of life and functional outcome after pediatric trauma. J. Trauma. 58(3):468–474, 2005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang, L., L. Chen, A. Vertiz, R. Balci. Survey of front passenger posture usage in passenger vehicles. SAE International. Paper No. 2004-01-0845, 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Injury Biomechanics Research Center, Division of AnatomyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations