Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 2794–2804 | Cite as

Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity

  • Laura C. BoucherEmail author
  • Julie Bing
  • John H. BolteIV


Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.


Crash test dummy Ankle Range of motion Leg Injury Children Biofidelity 



Anthropomorphic test device


Abbreviation for the new prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg being evaluated in this study


Belt positioning booster


Child restraint system


Child volunteer data




The abbreviation used for the standard Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD which was used for comparison in this study


Knee-bolster airbag


Motor vehicle crash


Plantar flexion


Range of motion



The authors would like acknowledge Doug Longhitano (Honda R&D Americas) and staff for providing the facilities and support for the knee-bolster airbag testing. The authors would also like to thank Mike Carlson (Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University) who contributed to the final stiffness bumper design. Additionally, the authors would like to acknowledge the National Science Foundation (NSF) Center for Child Injury Prevention Studies at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the Ohio State University (OSU) for sponsoring this study and its Industry Advisory Board (IAB) members for their support, valuable input and advice. The views presented are those of the authors and not necessarily the views of CHOP, OSU, the NSF, or the IAB members. This research was supported by the Center for Child Injury Prevention Studies (CChIPS).


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Injury Biomechanics Research Center, Division of AnatomyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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