Chondroinductive Hydrogel Pastes Composed of Naturally Derived Devitalized Cartilage
- 520 Downloads
Hydrogel precursors are liquid solutions that are prone to leaking from the defect site once implanted in vivo. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to create a hydrogel precursor that exhibited a yield stress. Additionally, devitalized cartilage extracellular matrix (DVC) was mixed with DVC that had been solubilized and methacrylated (MeSDVC) to create hydrogels that were chondroinductive. Precursors composed of 10% MeSDVC or 10% MeSDVC with 10% DVC were first evaluated rheologically, where non-Newtonian behavior was observed in all hydrogel precursors. Rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) were mixed in the precursor solutions, and the solutions were then crosslinked and cultured in vitro for 6 weeks with and without exposure to human transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3). The compressive modulus, gene expression, biochemical content, swelling, and histology of the gels were analyzed. The DVC-containing gels consistently outperformed the MeSDVC-only group in chondrogenic gene expression, especially at 6 weeks, where the relative collagen II expression of the DVC-containing groups with and without TGF-β3 exposure was 40- and 78-fold higher, respectively, than that of MeSDVC alone. Future work will test for chondrogenesis in vivo and overall, these two cartilage-derived components are promising materials for cartilage tissue engineering applications.
KeywordsDevitalized cartilage Hydrogel Yield stress Chondroinduction
We would like to acknowledge the University of Kansas Macromolecule and Vaccine Stabilization Center and the Tertiary Oil Recovery Program for their assistance with particle sizing, the members of the KU Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Lab who helped with porcine cartilage harvesting, and Heather Shinogle for her assistance with SEM imaging. We would like to recognize funding from the Kansas Bioscience Authority Rising Star Award, the National Institutes of Health via the KU Post Baccalaureate Research Education Program (NIH R25 GM078441), the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (E.C.B.), the KU Graduate Fellowship (E.A.K), and the Madison & Lila Self Graduate Fellowship Educational Award (E.A.K).
- 1.Adkisson, H. D., J. A. Martin, R. L. Amendola, C. Milliman, K. A. Mauch, A. B. Katwal, M. Seyedin, A. Amendola, P. R. Streeter, and J. A. Buckwalter. The potential of human allogeneic juvenile chondrocytes for restoration of articular cartilage. Am. J. Sports Med. 38:1324–1333, 2010.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 3.Beck, E. C., B. L. Lohman, D. B. Tabakh, S. L. Kieweg, S. H. Gehrke, C. J. Berkland, and M. S. Detamore. Enabling surgical placement of hydrogels through achieving paste-like rheological behavior in hydrogel precursor solutions. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 7:1–8, 2015.Google Scholar
- 19.Gershlak, J. R., J. I. Resnikoff, K. E. Sullivan, C. Williams, R. M. Wang, and L. D. Black. Mesenchymal stem cells ability to generate traction stress in response to substrate stiffness is modulated by the changing extracellular matrix composition of the heart during development. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 439:161–166, 2013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Mansour, J. M. Biomechanics of cartilage. In: Kinesiology: The Mechanics and Pathomechanics of Human Movement, edited by C. A. Oatis. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, pp. 66–79.Google Scholar
- 30.McLennan, A., A. Bates, P. Turner, and M. White. BIOS Instant Notes in Molecular Biology. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2012.Google Scholar
- 34.Schwarz, S., A. F. Elsaesser, L. Koerber, E. Goldberg-Bockhorn, A. M. Seitz, C. Bermueller, L. Dürselen, A. Ignatius, R. Breiter, and N. Rotter. Processed xenogenic cartilage as innovative biomatrix for cartilage tissue engineering: effects on chondrocyte differentiation and function. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2012. doi: 10.1002/term.1650.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar