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Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 523–535 | Cite as

Coronary Stent Materials and Coatings: A Technology and Performance Update

  • Barry O’Brien
  • Haroon ZafarEmail author
  • Ahmad Ibrahim
  • Junaid Zafar
  • Faisal Sharif
Medical Stents: State of the Art and Future Directions

Abstract

This paper reviews the current state of the art for coronary stent materials and surface coatings, with an emphasis on new technologies that followed on from first-generation bare metal and drug-eluting stents. These developments have been driven mainly by the need to improve long term outcomes, including late stent thrombosis. Biodegradable drug-eluting coatings aim to address the long term effects of residual durable polymer after drug elution; the SYNERGY, BioMatrix, and Nobori stents are all promising devices in this category, with minimal polymer through the use of abluminal coatings. Textured stent surfaces have been used to attached drug directly, without polymer; the Yukon Choice and BioFreedom stents have some promising data in this category, while a hydroxyapatite textured surface has had less success. The use of drug-filled reservoirs looked promising initially but the NEVO device has experienced both technical and commercial set-backs. However this approach may eventually make it to market if trials with the Drug-Filled Stent prove to be successful. Non-pharmacological coatings such as silicon carbide, carbon, and titanium–nitride-oxide are also proving to have potential to provide better performance than BMS, without some of the longer term issues associated with DES. In terms of biological coatings, the Genous stent which promotes attachment of endothelial progenitor cells has made good progress while gene-eluting stents still have some practical challenges to overcome. Perhaps the most advancement has been in the field of biodegradable stents. The BVS PLLA device is now seeing increasing clinical use in many complex indications while magnesium stents continue to make steady advancements.

Keywords

Stents Metallic Polymeric Coatings Biodegradable Abluminal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Health Service Executive (Ireland) that provides all of Ireland’s public health services in hospitals and communities across the country.

Conflict of interest

We declare that there is no conflict of interest for any author.

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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry O’Brien
    • 1
  • Haroon Zafar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmad Ibrahim
    • 3
  • Junaid Zafar
    • 4
  • Faisal Sharif
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering & InformaticsNational University of Ireland (NUI)GalwayIreland
  2. 2.School of PhysicsNUI, GalwayGalwayIreland
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyUniversity Hospital GalwayGalwayIreland
  4. 4.Faculty of EngineeringGovt College UniversityLahorePakistan
  5. 5.HRB Clinical Research FacilityGalwayIreland
  6. 6.Regenerative Medicine InstituteNUIGalwayIreland
  7. 7.BioInnovateGalwayIreland

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