Traffic injuries have become a major health-related issue to school-aged children. To study this type of injury with numerical simulations, a finite element model was developed to represent the full body of a 10-year-old (YO) child. The model has been validated against test data at both body-part and full-body levels in previous studies. Representing only the average 10-YO child, this model did not include subject-specific attributes, such as the variations in size and shape among different children. In this paper, a new modeling approach was used to morph this baseline model to a subject-specific model, based on anthropometric data collected from pediatric subjects. This mesh-morphing method was then used to rapidly morph the baseline mesh into the subject-specific geometry while maintaining a good mesh quality. The morphed model was subsequently applied to simulate a real-world motor vehicle crash accident. A lung injury observed in the accident was well captured by the subject-specific model. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed morphing approach to develop subject-specific human models, and confirm their capability in prediction of traffic injuries.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Arbogast, K. B., S. Balasubramanian, T. Seacrist, M. R. Maltese, J. F. Garcia-Espana, T. Hopely, E. Constans, F. J. Lopez-Valdes, R. W. Kent, H. Tanji, and K. Higuchi. Comparison of kinematic responses of the head and spine for children and adults in low-speed frontal sled tests. Stapp Car Crash J. 53:329–372, 2009.
Ash, J., C. Sherwood, Y. Abdelilah, J. Crandall, D. Parent, and D. Kallieris. Comparison of anthropomorphic test dummies with a pediatric cadaver restrained by a three-point belt in frontal sled tests. Paper presented at: 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) 2009; Stuttgart, Germany.
Belwadi, A., J. H. Siegel, A. Singh, J. A. Smith, K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. Finite element aortic injury reconstruction of near side lateral impacts using real world crash data. J. Biomech. Eng. 134(1):011006, 2012.
Bose, D., K. Bhalla, L. Rooij, S. Millington, A. Studley, and J. Crandall. Response of the knee joint to the pedestrian impact loading environment. SAE Technical Paper; 2004. No. 2004-01-1608.
Cheng, H., L. Obergefell, and A. Rizer. The Development of the GEBOD program. IEEE Biomedical Engineering Conference, Proceedings of the 15th Southern, pp. 251–254, 1996.
Dong, L., G. Li, H. Mao, S. Marek, and K. H. Yang. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41(12):2538–2552, 2013.
Dong, L., H. Mao, G. Li, and K. H. Yang. Investigation of pediatric neck response and muscle activation in low-speed frontal impacts. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 18:1–13, 2014.
Durbin, D. R., H. G. Gardner, C. R. Baum, M. D. Dowd, D. R. Durbin, B. E. Ebel, M. B. Ewald, R. Lichenstein, M. A. P. Limbos, J. O’Neil, and E. C. Powell. Policy statement-child passenger safety. Pediatrics 127(4):788–793, 2011.
Ewing, C. L., D. J. Thomas, L. M. Patrick, G. Beeler, and M. J. Smith. Living human dynamic response to—G x impact acceleration II—Accelerations measured on the head and neck. SAE Technical Paper; 1969. No. 690817.
Gayzik, F. S. Development of a Finite Element Based Injury Metric for Pulmonary Contusion. Winston-Salem: Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University, 2008.
Guillemot, H., B. Besnault, S. Robin, C. Got, J. Y. Le Coz, F. Lavaste, and J.-P. Lassau. Pelvic injuries in side impact collisions: a field accident analysis and dynamic tests on isolated pelvic bones. SAE Technical Paper; 1997. No. 973322.
Jiang, B., L. Cao, H. Mao, C. Wagner, S. Marek, and K. H. Yang. Development of a 10-year-old paediatric thorax finite element model validated against cardiopulmonary resuscitation data. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 17(11):1185–1197, 2014.
Jiang, B., H. Mao, L. Cao, and K. H. Yang. Experimental validation of pediatric thorax finite element model under dynamic loading condition and analysis of injury. SAE Technical Paper; 2013. No. 2013-01-0456.
Jingwen, H., J. D. Rupp, and M. P. Reed. Focusing on vulnerable populations in crashes: recent advances in finite element human models for injury biomechanics research. J Automot. Saf. Energy. 3(4):295, 2012.
Kent, R., F. J. Lopez-Valdes, J. Lamp, S. Lau, D. Parent, J. Kerrigan, D. Lessley, and R. Salzar. Characterization of the pediatic chest and abdomen using three post-mortem human subjects. Paper presented at: 22nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) 2011; Washington, DC.
Kent, R., R. Salzar, J. Kerrigan, D. Parent, D. Lessley, M. Sochor, J. F. Luck, A. Loyd, Y. Song, and R. Nightingale. Pediatric thoracoabdominal biomechanics. Stapp Car Crash J. 53:373–401, 2009.
Kerrigan, J., D. Drinkwater, C. Kam, D. Murphy, B. Ivarsson, J. Crandall, and J. Patrie. Tolerance of the human leg and thigh in dynamic latero-medial bending. Int. J. Crashworthiness 9(6):607–623, 2004.
Klein, K. F., J. Hu, M. P. Reed, C. N. Hoff, and J. D. Rupp. Development and validation of statistical models of femur geometry for use with parametric finite element models. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2015. doi:10.1007/s10439-015-1307-6.
Li, Z., J. Hu, M. P. Reed, J. D. Rupp, C. N. Hoff, J. Zhang, and B. Cheng. Development, validation, and application of a parametric pediatric head finite element model for impact simulations. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 39(12):2984–2997, 2011.
Li, Z., J. Hu, and J. Zhang. Comparison of different radial basis functions in developing subject-specific infant head finite element models for injury biomechanics study. Paper presented at: ASME 2012 Summer Bioengineering Conference 2012; Fajardo, Puerto Rico.
Loyd, A. M. Studies of the human head from neonate to adult: an inertial, geometrical and structural analysis with comparisons to the ATD head, Duke University; 2011.
Luck, J. F. The biomechanics of the perinatal, neonatal and pediatric cervical spine: investigation, Duke University; 2012.
Luck, J. F., R. W. Nightingale, A. M. Loyd, M. T. Prange, A. T. Dibb, Y. Song, L. Fronheiser, and B. S. Myers. Tensile mechanical properties of the perinatal and pediatric PMHS osteoligamentous cervical spine. Stapp Car Crash J. 52:107–134, 2008.
Luck, J. F., R. W. Nightingale, Y. Song, J. R. Kait, A. M. Loyd, B. S. Myers, R. Cameron, and D. Bass. Tensile failure properties of the perinatal, neonatal, and pediatric cadaveric cervical spine. Spine. 38(1):E1–E12, 2013.
Maltese, M. R., T. Castner, D. Niles, A. Nishisaki, S. Balasubramanian, J. Nysaether, R. Sutton, V. Nadkarni, and K. B. Arbogast. Methods for determining pediatric thoracic force-deflection characteristics from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Stapp Car Crash J. 52:83–105, 2008.
Mao, H., S. Holcombe, M. Shen, X. Jin, C. D. Wagner, S. C. Wang, K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 42(10):2143–2155, 2014.
Nahum, A. M., R. Smith, and C. C. Ward. Intracranial pressure dynamics during head impact. SAE Technical Paper; 1977. No. 770922.
Niehoff, P., and H. C. Gabler. The accuracy of WinSmash delta-V estimates: the influence of vehicle type, stiffness, and impact mode. Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 50:73–89, 2006.
Nightingale, R. W., V. C. Chancey, D. Ottaviano, J. F. Luck, L. Tran, M. Prange, and B. S. Myers. Flexion and extension structural properties and strengths for male cervical spine segments. J. Biomech. 40(3):535–542, 2007.
Okamoto, M., Y. Takahashi, F. Mori, M. Hitosugi, J. Madeley, J. Ivarsson, and J. R. Crandall. Development of finite element model for child pedestrian protection. Paper presented at: 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety Vehicles (ESV)2003; Nagoya, Japan.
Ouyang, J., W. D. Zhao, Y. Q. Xu, W. S. Chen, and S. Z. Zhong. Thoracic impact testing of pediatric cadaveric subjects. J. Trauma 61(6):1492–1500, 2006.
Ouyang, J., Q.-A. Zhu, and W.-D. Zhao. Biomechanical character of extremity long bones in children and its significance. Chin. J. Clin. Anat. 6:030, 2003.
Ouyang, J., Q. Zhu, W. Zhao, Y. Xu, W. Chen, and S. Zhong. Biomechanical assessment of the pediatric cervical spine under bending and tensile loading. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30(24):E716–E723, 2005.
Ouyang, J., Q. A. Zhu, W. D. Zhao, Y. Q. Xu, W. S. Chen, and S. Z. Zhong. Experimental cadaveric study of lateral impact of the pelvis in children. Acad. J. First Med. Coll. PLA. 2003;23(5):397–401, 408.
Ruan, J., S. Rouhana, and S. Barbat. Development of a six-year old digital human body model for vehicle safety analysis. Paper presented at: the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress 2012; Beijing, China.
Shen, M., F. Zhu, B. Jiang, V. Sanghavi, H. Fan, Y. Cai, Z. Wang, A. Kalra, X. Jin, C. Chou, and K. Yang. Development and a limited of whole-body finite element pedestrian and occupant models of a 10-year-old child. Paper presented at: The International Research Council On Biomechanics Of Injury Conference (IRCOBI) 2015; Lyon, France.
Shen, M., F. Zhu, H. Mao, H. Fan, N. Mone, V. Sanghavi, X. Jin, A. Kalra, C. Chou, and K. Yang. Finite element modeling of 10 year-old child pelvis & lower extremities with growth plates for pedestrian protection. Int. J. Veh. Saf. 2015 (in press).
Shi, X., L. Cao, M. P. Reed, J. D. Rupp, and J. Hu. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. 18(12):1280–1292, 2015.
Shi, X. N., L. B. Cao, M. P. Reed, J. D. Rupp, C. N. Hoff, and J. W. Hu. A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index. J. Biomech. 47(10):2277–2285, 2014.
Shivanna, K. H., S. C. Tadepalli, and N. M. Grosland. Feature-based multiblock finite element mesh generation. Comput. Aided Des. 42(12):1108–1116, 2010.
Snyder, R. G. Anthropometry of infants, children, and youths to age 18 for product safety design. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission; 1977. Final Report.
Thunnissen, J., J. Wismans, C. Ewing, and D. Thomas. Human volunteer head-neck response in frontal flexion: a new analysis. SAE Technical Paper; 1995. No. 952721.
Wagner, C., S. Deshpande, X. Jin, H. Mao, L. Zhang, K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. Digital child project: numerical model development: Part I—Identify pediatric anatomy for model development. Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University; 2009. Final Report.
This study is partially supported by Wayne State University Bioengineering Center and National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (Grant Number 51405148). The authors wish to express their gratitude to Mr. Mark Scarboro at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for providing CIREN data.
Associate Editor Karol Miller oversaw the review of this article.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhu, F., Jiang, B., Hu, J. et al. Computational Modeling of Traffic Related Thoracic Injury of a 10-Year-Old Child Using Subject-Specific Modeling Technique. Ann Biomed Eng 44, 258–271 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-015-1372-x