Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 41, Issue 12, pp 2474–2487 | Cite as

Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: High School Ages 14 to 18 Years and Cumulative Impact Analysis

  • Jillian E. Urban
  • Elizabeth M. Davenport
  • Adam J. Golman
  • Joseph A. Maldjian
  • Christopher T. Whitlow
  • Alexander K. Powers
  • Joel D. Stitzel


Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of athletes in football.


Biomechanics Brain injury Concussion Football Pediatric Youth Helmet Risk High school 


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Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jillian E. Urban
    • 1
    • 2
  • Elizabeth M. Davenport
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adam J. Golman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph A. Maldjian
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christopher T. Whitlow
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Alexander K. Powers
    • 2
    • 4
    • 6
  • Joel D. Stitzel
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Virginia Tech—Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and SciencesWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Wake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology)Wake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  5. 5.Translational Science InstituteWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  6. 6.Childress Institute for Pediatric TraumaWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

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