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3D Face Reconstruction from 2D Pictures: First Results of a Web-Based Computer Aided System for Aesthetic Procedures

Abstract

The human face is a vital component of our identity and many people undergo medical aesthetics procedures in order to achieve an ideal or desired look. However, communication between physician and patient is fundamental to understand the patient’s wishes and to achieve the desired results. To date, most plastic surgeons rely on either “free hand” 2D drawings on picture printouts or computerized picture morphing. Alternatively, hardware dependent solutions allow facial shapes to be created and planned in 3D, but they are usually expensive or complex to handle. To offer a simple and hardware independent solution, we propose a web-based application that uses 3 standard 2D pictures to create a 3D representation of the patient’s face on which facial aesthetic procedures such as filling, skin clearing or rejuvenation, and rhinoplasty are planned in 3D. The proposed application couples a set of well-established methods together in a novel manner to optimize 3D reconstructions for clinical use. Face reconstructions performed with the application were evaluated by two plastic surgeons and also compared to ground truth data. Results showed the application can provide accurate 3D face representations to be used in clinics (within an average of 2 mm error) in less than 5 min.

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Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the support of the Swiss KTI Promotion Agency (grant: 12892.1 PFLS-LS).

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Correspondence to Thiago Oliveira-Santos.

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Associate Editor Ioannis A. Kakadiaris oversaw the review of this article.

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10439_2013_744_MOESM1_ESM.tif

Location of the 15 landmarks used for the TPS + CPM metric: rft and lft, right and left frontotemporale; rex and lex, right and left exocanthion; ren and len, right and left endocanthion; na, nasion; prn, pronasale; ral and lal, right and left, alare; sn, subnasale; ls, labiale superius; rch and lch, right and left cheilion; and gn, gnathion (TIFF 1283 kb)

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Oliveira-Santos, T., Baumberger, C., Constantinescu, M. et al. 3D Face Reconstruction from 2D Pictures: First Results of a Web-Based Computer Aided System for Aesthetic Procedures. Ann Biomed Eng 41, 952–966 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-013-0744-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-013-0744-3

Keywords

  • Statiscal
  • Shape
  • Modelling
  • Plastic surgery
  • Comminication tool