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The Effect of Magnesium Ion Concentration on the Fibrocartilage Regeneration Potential of Goat Costal Chondrocytes

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Magnesium has recently been explored as a potential biomaterial for degradable orthopedic implants but its effect on fibrocartilage remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of high concentrations of magnesium ions on the matrix production of goat costal fibrochondrocytes in vitro. Cells were cultured using a scaffoldless approach with media containing magnesium chloride (MgCl2) or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) at concentrations of 20, 50, and 100 mM in addition to the baseline magnesium concentration of 0.8 mM MgSO4. At 4 weeks, there were no significant differences in compressive tangent modulus and total matrix production between constructs cultured in 20 mM Mg2+ and the 0.8 mM Mg2+ control (435 ± 47 kPa). There was a significant decrease in compressive tangent modulus compared to the 0.8 mM Mg2+ constructs in the 50 mM MgCl2 and MgSO4 groups, while the 100 mM groups were not mechanically testable (p < 0.05). The collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of the 50 and 100 mM MgCl2 and MgSO4 constructs was significantly lower than the control (6.9 ± 0.5% and 16.5 ± 1.3% per dry weight, respectively) (p < 0.05). The results show that goat costal fibrochondrocytes exhibit a high degree of resiliency to magnesium ion concentrations up to 20 mM in vitro.

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We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0812348. We would also like to thank Manasa P. Madoori for her help with the immunohistochemistry.

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No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this manuscript.

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Correspondence to Alejandro J. Almarza.

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Associate Editor Michael S. Detamore oversaw the review of this article.

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Hagandora, C.K., Tudares, M.A. & Almarza, A.J. The Effect of Magnesium Ion Concentration on the Fibrocartilage Regeneration Potential of Goat Costal Chondrocytes. Ann Biomed Eng 40, 688–696 (2012).

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