Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Head and Neck Loading in Everyday and Vigorous Activities

  • Published:
Annals of Biomedical Engineering Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to document head and neck loading in a group of ordinary people engaged in non-injurious everyday and more vigorous physical activities. Twenty (20) volunteers that were representative of the general population were subjected to seven test scenarios: a soccer ball impact to the forehead, a self-imposed hand strike to the forehead, vigorous head shaking, plopping down in a chair, jumping off a step, a seated drop onto the buttocks, and a vertical drop while seated supine in a chair. Some scenarios involved prescribed and well-controlled stimuli, while others allowed the volunteers to perform common activities at a self-selected level of intensity. Head accelerations up to 31 g and 2888 rad/s2 and neck loads up to 268 N in posterior shear, 526 N in compression, and 36 Nm in extension were recorded. Most head and neck injury criteria predicted a low risk of injury in all activities. However, rotational head accelerations and Neck Injury Criterion (NIC) values were much higher than some proposed tolerance limits in a large number of tests, all of which were non-injurious. The data from this study help us to establish an envelope of head and neck loading that is commonly encountered and presents a minimal risk of injury.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Allen, M. E., I. Weir-Jones, D. R. Motiuk, K. R. Flewin, R. D. Goring, R. Kobetitch, and A. Broadhurst. Acceleration perturbations of daily living: a comparison to “whiplash”. Spine 19(11):1285–1290, 1994.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Beier, G., E. Schuller, M. Schuck, C. L. Ewing, E. D. Becker, and D. J. Thomas. Center of gravity and moments of inertia of human heads. In: Proc. International IRCOBI Conf., 1980, pp. 218–228.

  3. Boström, O., M. Y. Svensson, B. Aldman, H. A. Hansson, Y. Håland, P. Lövsund, T. Seeman, A. Suneson, A. Säljö, and T. Örtengren. A new neck injury criterion candidate—based on injury findings in the cervical spinal ganglia after experimental neck extension trauma. In: Proc. International IRCOBI Conf., 1996, pp. 123–136.

  4. Bussone, W. R., T. L. A. Moore, D. Richards, R. T. Bove, I. Scher, and M. T. Prange. Measurements of non-injurious head accelerations of a pediatric population. Society of Automotive Engineers. Paper 2009-01-0383, 2009.

  5. Carragee, E., T. Alamin, I. Chang, T. Franklin, and E. Hurwitz. Does minor trauma cause serious low back illness? Spine 31(25):2942–2949, 2006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Carver, A. XIV: pain. In: ACP Medicine, edited by E. G. Nabel. BC Decker, Inc., 2009, Neuro XIV Pain-1, p. 11.

  7. Castro, W. H., S. J. Meyer, M. E. R. Becke, C. G. Nentwig, M. F. Hein, B. I. Ercan, S. Thomann, U. Wessels, and A. E. Du Chesne. No stress—no whiplash? Prevalence of “whiplash” symptoms following exposure to a placebo rear-end collision. Int. J. Legal Med. 114(6):316–322, 2001.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Clauser, C. E., J. T. McConville, and J. W. Young. Weight, volume, and center of mass of segments of the human body. Wright-patterson AFB, Air Force Systems Command, AMRL-TR-69-70, 1969, pp. 1–100.

  9. Duma, S. M., S. J. Manoogian, W. R. Bussone, P. G. Brolinson, M. W. Goforth, J. J. Donnenworth, R. M. Greenwald, J. J. Chu, and J. J. Crisco. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clin. J. Sports Med. 15(1):3–8, 2005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fréchède, B., and A. S. McIntosh. Numerical reconstructions of real-life concussive football impacts. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 41(2):390–398, 2009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Funk, J. R., J. M. Cormier, C. E. Bain, H. Guzman, and E. Bonugli. An evaluation of various neck injury criteria in vigorous activities. In: Proc. International IRCOBI Conf., 2007, pp. 233–248.

  12. Funk J. R., J. M. Cormier, C. E. Bain, H. Guzman, and E. Bonugli. Validation and application of a methodology to calculate head accelerations and neck loading in soccer ball impacts. Society of Automotive Engineers. Paper 2009-01-0251, 2009.

  13. Funk, J. R., S. M. Duma, S. J. Manoogian, and S. Rowson. Biomechanical risk estimates for mild traumatic brain injury. Proc. Assoc. Adv. Automot. Med. 51:343–361, 2007.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Kullgren, A., L. Eriksson, O. Bostrom, and M. Krafft. Validation of neck injury criteria using reconstructed real-life rear-end crashes with recorded crash pulses. In: Proc. 18th Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conf. Paper 344, 2003.

  15. Manoogian, S. J., J. R. Funk, J. M. Cormier, C. E. Bain, H. Guzman, and E. Bonugli. Evaluation of Thoracic and Lumbar Accelerations of Volunteers in Vertical and Horizontal Loading Scenarios. Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper 2010-01-0146, 2010.

  16. Mertz, H. J., and P. Prasad. Improved neck injury risk curves for tension and extension moment measurements of crash dummies. In: Proc. 44th Stapp Car Crash Conf. Paper 2000-01-SC05, 2000.

  17. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 49 CFR Ch. V Part 571—Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (Standard No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection). §571.208, S6.6(a). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004, pp. 520.

  18. Naunheim, R. S., J. Standeven, C. Richter, and L. M. Lewis. Comparison of impact data in hockey, football, and soccer. J. Trauma 48(5):938–941, 2000.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Ng, T. P., W. R. Bussone, and S. M. Duma. The effect of gender and body size on linear accelerations of the head observed during daily activities. Biomed. Sci. Instrum. 42:25–30, 2006.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Ommaya, A. K., and A. E. Hirsch. Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J. Biomech. 4:13–21, 1971.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Ono, K., K. Kaneoka, A. Wittek, and J. Kajzer. Cervical injury mechanism based on the analysis of human cervical vertebral motion and head-neck-torso kinematics during low speed rear impacts. In: Proc. 41st Stapp Car Crash Conf. Paper 973340, 1997, pp. 339–356.

  22. Pincemaille, Y., X. Trosseille, P. Mack, C. Tarriere, F. Breton, and B. Renault. Some new data related to human tolerance obtained from volunteer boxers. In: Proc. 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conf. Paper 892435, 1989, pp. 177–190.

  23. Rowson, S., G. Brolinson, M. Goforth, D. Dietter, and S. Duma. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football. J. Biomech. Eng. 131:061016-1-7, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Schmitt, K.-U., M. H. Muser, and P. Niederer. A new neck injury criterion candidate for rear-end collisions taking into account shear forces and bending moments. In: Proc. 17th Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conf. Paper 124, 2001.

  25. Schneider, L. W., D. H. Robbins, M. A. Pflug, and R. G. Snyder. Anthropometry of Motor Vehicle Occupants. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, UMTRI-83-53-1, 1983.

  26. van den Kroonenberg, A., M. Philippens, H. Cappon, J. Wismans, W. Hell, and K. Langwieder. Human head-neck response during low-speed rear end impacts. In: Proc. 42nd Stapp Car Crash Conf. Paper 983158, 1998, pp. 207–221.

  27. van der Vorst, M. V., K. Ono, P. Chan, and J. Stuhmiller. Correlates to traumatic brain injury in nonhuman primates. J. Trauma 62(1):199–206, 2007.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Vijayakumar, V., I. Scher, D. C. Gloeckner, J. Pierce, R. Bove, D. Young, and R. Cargill. Head kinematics and upper neck loading during simulated low-speed rear-end collisions: a comparison with vigorous activities of daily living. Society of Automotive Engineers. Paper 2006-01-0247, 2006, pp. 49–60.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to James R. Funk.

Additional information

Associate Editor Stefan Duma oversaw the review of this article.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Funk, J.R., Cormier, J.M., Bain, C.E. et al. Head and Neck Loading in Everyday and Vigorous Activities. Ann Biomed Eng 39, 766–776 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-010-0183-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-010-0183-3

Keywords

Navigation