Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) is a cardiac functional imaging modality, noninvasively reconstructing epicardial potentials, electrograms and isochrones (activation maps) from multi-channel body surface potential recordings. The procedure involves solving Laplace’s equation in the source-free volume conductor between torso and epicardial surfaces, using Boundary Element Method (BEM). Previously, linear interpolation (LI) on three-noded triangular surface elements was used in the BEM formulation. Here, we use quadratic interpolation (QI) for potentials over six-noded linear triangles. The performance of LI and QI in ECGI is evaluated through direct comparison with measured data from an isolated canine heart suspended in a human-torso-shaped electrolyte tank. QI enhances the accuracy and resolution of ECGI reconstructions for two different inverse methods, Tikhonov regularization and Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRes) method, with the QI-GMRes combination providing the highest accuracy and resolution. QI reduces the average relative error (RE) between reconstructed and measured epicardial potentials by 25%. It preserves the amplitude (average RE reduced by 48%) and morphology of electrograms better (average correlation coefficient for QI ∼ 0.97, LI ∼ 0.92). We also applied QI to ECGI reconstructions in human subjects during cardiac pacing, where QI locates ventricular pacing sites with higher accuracy (≤ 10 mm) than LI (≤ 18 mm).
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Ghosh, S., Rudy, Y. Accuracy of Quadratic Versus Linear Interpolation in Noninvasive Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI). Ann Biomed Eng 33, 1187–1201 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-005-5537-x